Type: Definition Essays
Sample donated: Christian Cohen
Last updated: December 31, 2019
Introduction:The modern democracy concept is highly linked with the classicalGreek city state Athens. Abraham Lincoln’s is define democracy “government of the people, by the people’ (or electedrepresentatives of the people) ‘and for the people” Democracy producedpolitical stability in modern political system. Political parties played a keyrole in developing countries like Pakistan. In a state where operatesmulti-political party system, political Alliance are the natural outcome due tothe presences of diverse political ideologies and opinions. Weak politicalparties always seek to enter into the partnerships in order to hold politicalpower and thus it influences the government in their operation of policies. The political scientists declare the political party “A group of people Organized for the purpose of wining governmentpower. Political party displays some measures of ideological cohesion.
Theprincipal classification of political parties has distinguished between cadreand mass or, later, catches all parties, parties of representation and partiesof integration, constitutional or main stream parties and revolutionary andanti-system ones, and left wing” (. Oxford University Press, 2009,p 34)As noted in Encyclopedia Encarta (2009), political parties are:”organizations that mobilize voters on behalf of a common set of interests,concerns, and goals. In many nations, parties play a crucial role in thedemocratic process. They formulate political and policy agendas, selectcandidates, conduct election campaigns, and monitor the work of their electedrepresentatives. Political parties link citizens and the government, providinga means by which people can have a voice in their government”.
Robert H.Dix, defined politicalparties:|”among other things, parties are typically major vehicles for therecruitment of political leadership, the structuring of electoral choice andpeaceable political competition, and framing of policy alternatives” (Robert H.Dix (1992), p. 488). According to J. R. Montero and R Gunther: “parties were among thefirst subjects of analysis at the very birth of modern political science”(Montero and Gunther, op.cit.
p.2)A well-known definition of political parties comes from theAmerican political scientist Antony Downs, who wrote: “A political party is ateam of men seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in aduly constituted election”. The Italian scholar Giovanni Sartori defined a political party as:”any political group identified by an official label that presents atelections, and is capable of placing through election, candidates for publicoffice” (Anthony Downs, an Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper , 1957) Political alliances always formed for organizing partiescollectively in pursuit of a common objective. A political alliance is a “temporary combination of groups orindividuals formed to pursue specific objectives through joint action”(Motlemelle Anthony Kappa, “The Politics of Coalition Formation and Democracyin Lesotho,” Politikon Vol.
35, No.3 (2008), pp.339-56 😉 In other words it is “theunion of different political parties or groups for a particular purpose,usually for a limited time.” Arthur Lupia and Kaare Strom, “CoalitionGovernance Theory: Bargaining, Electoral Connections and the Shadow of theFuture” (Universitat De Barcelona 15 September 2003) Alliances are alsostructured by smaller parties where multi party system existed, every party inpost- colonial states purely for the seek of their survival.
In countries wheredominant single party system emerges the smaller parties enter into alliancesto increase the chances of their success in elections. Thus, they arepresenting themselves as an alternative political force in electoral processes. Pakistan got freedom fromBritish rule in the leadership of Quid- e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah throughpolitical and constitutional struggle. Muslim league is a pioneer Politicalparty which played a key role in the freedom movement of Pakistan. With thepassage of time Muslim league lost their position among the peoples. Muslim league was a dominance party inpolitical system.
Muslim league faced different political and social problemslike ethnic, linguistics, religious, provincialism and delay in constitutionmaking. After the departure of the great leader Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad AliJinnah and the assassination of the first prime minister of Pakistan Liaqat AliKhan, Muslim league could not maintain their presence in public. The MuslimLeague is the founding party of Pakistan.
“But after death of two nationalleaders Muslim League has never been able to transform itself from a nationalistmovement a national party” (Veena Kukerja (2003), p. 5). So the distance betweenMuslim league and common peoples increased with the passage of time. TheGovernment of Pakistan did not hold general election in coming eight years. Theprolong process of constitution and political intolerance in multi party systembecame cause of political instability in country (Aziz KK Party politics inPakistan 1947-1948). Back ground of the study: Pakistan is one of the stateswhere multi party system is existence.
The electoral alliance is natural outcoming where multi parties system was operating. Some prominent political allianceswere described here.1.1: UnitedFront (UF), 1953In the history of Pakistan first pre- electoral an allianceformed named as “United Front”(UF) in 1953.the united front lunched electoralcampaign in country which pushed Muslim league from the political field to thecorner in 1955 elections for the second constituent assembly (Husain Akhtar,2008). Muslim League was totally defeated in East Pakistan election 1954.
United front emerged on the political maps of the East Pakistan. So bilateralagreement was signed for the collision government between Muslim league andAwami league. But Government did not bring any political stability incountry.
In 1958 military interventionchanged the political scenario of the country. General Ayub Khan said”parliamentary democracy could not soul able for Pakistani society. Because thepeople of Pakistan uneducated which easily exploited by politician and landlords. Political parties and politician is responsible for destabilization ofinstitution”. Military Government banned all political parties. The offices ofall the political parties sealed by the military Government. MilitaryGovernment introduced new local government system basic democrat election incountry on non-political parties’ basis in 1962.
Basic democrats were anelectoral college for presidential, national and provincial election. In 1962three major political parties had decided to enter into an alliance in order tocompel Ayub Khan took democratic steps in the country. The National DemocraticFront (NDF), an Alliance which had formed Suharwardy by combining the AwamiLeague (Al) Krishnak Sarmik Party (KSP) and Jamat-e-Islami (JI).
(M. Rafique Afzal, Pakistan: History andPolitics 1947-1971 Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2001) 1.2: Combined Opposition Alliance, COP1964 Before the presidentialelection Ayub Khan introduced “Basic Democracy “system to legitimize andlengthen his rule.Political parties formed a national base political alliance(combined opposition parties) COP in 1964. The political parties of COP consists of four regional politicalparties, Council Muslim League, (CML) its strongest hold in Punjab and Karachi;the Awami League,(AL) which strongest inEast Pakistan; the National Awami Party, (ANP) which has strongest position in KPK. Election for national and provincial assembly held on 20th Apriland presidential election held 2nd January 1965. And there was ‘basicdemocrats’ – elected local councilors on a rural and urban level – Combinedopposition party (COP) struggled campaign for presidential candidate MissFatima Jinnah.
The other religious parties’ criticism over the nomination of afemale candidate for presidential election because they consider that Islam didnot allow any female to become the head of the state. So it was a main cause that COP did notsucceed to attract the masses in favor of Miss Fatima Jinnah. (Popatai, M (2014), Op. Cit.
)Thepresidential election of January 1965 resulted in a victory for Ayub Khan.Presidential candidate Miss Jinnah united all the antidictatorship forces. Inelection the government used official machinery, large-scale rigging and thefailure of pro Chinese sections of the left in East Pakistan to givewhole-hearted backing. Theradical religious political party Jamaat-I-Islami, surprisingly supporting thecandidacy of a woman which is against its manifesto. COP emphasized on their nine-point programfor the restoration of parliamentary democracy. Ayub Khan won 63.
3 percent of the Electoral College vote. His majoritywas larger in West Pakistan (73.6 percent) tha