Introduction: The principal classification of political parties has


The modern democracy concept is highly linked with the classical
Greek city state Athens. Abraham Lincoln’s is define democracy “government of the people, by the people’ (or elected
representatives of the people) ‘and for the people” Democracy produced
political stability in modern political system. Political parties played a key
role in developing countries like Pakistan. In a state where operates
multi-political party system, political Alliance are the natural outcome due to
the presences of diverse political ideologies and opinions. Weak political
parties always seek to enter into the partnerships in order to hold political
power and thus it influences the government in their operation of policies. The political scientists declare the political party

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

“A group of people Organized for the purpose of wining government
power. Political party displays some measures of ideological cohesion. The
principal classification of political parties has distinguished between cadre
and mass or, later, catches all parties, parties of representation and parties
of integration, constitutional or main stream parties and revolutionary and
anti-system ones, and left wing” (. Oxford University Press, 2009,
p 34)

As noted in Encyclopedia Encarta (2009), political parties are:
“organizations that mobilize voters on behalf of a common set of interests,
concerns, and goals. In many nations, parties play a crucial role in the
democratic process. They formulate political and policy agendas, select
candidates, conduct election campaigns, and monitor the work of their elected
representatives. Political parties link citizens and the government, providing
a means by which people can have a voice in their government”.  Robert H.Dix, defined political
parties:|”among other things, parties are typically major vehicles for the
recruitment of political leadership, the structuring of electoral choice and
peaceable political competition, and framing of policy alternatives” (Robert H.
Dix (1992), p. 488). 

According to J. R. Montero and R Gunther: “parties were among the
first subjects of analysis at the very birth of modern political science”
(Montero and Gunther, op.cit. p.2)

A well-known definition of political parties comes from the
American political scientist Antony Downs, who wrote: “A political party is a
team of men seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a
duly constituted election”.

The Italian scholar Giovanni Sartori defined a political party as:
“any political group identified by an official label that presents at
elections, and is capable of placing through election, candidates for public
office” (Anthony Downs, an Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper &
Brothers, 1957)

Political alliances always formed for organizing parties
collectively in pursuit of a common objective. 
A political alliance is a “temporary combination of groups or
individuals formed to pursue specific objectives through joint action”
(Motlemelle Anthony Kappa, “The Politics of Coalition Formation and Democracy
in Lesotho,” Politikon Vol.35, No.3 (2008), pp.339-56 😉

 In other words it is “the
union of different political parties or groups for a particular purpose,
usually for a limited time.” Arthur Lupia and Kaare Strom, “Coalition
Governance Theory: Bargaining, Electoral Connections and the Shadow of the
Future” (Universitat De Barcelona 15 September 2003)

 Alliances are also
structured by smaller parties where multi party system existed, every party in
post- colonial states purely for the seek of their survival. In countries where
dominant single party system emerges the smaller parties enter into alliances
to increase the chances of their success in elections. Thus, they are
presenting themselves as an alternative political force in electoral processes.

  Pakistan got freedom from
British rule in the leadership of Quid- e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah through
political and constitutional struggle. Muslim league is a pioneer Political
party which played a key role in the freedom movement of Pakistan. With the
passage of time Muslim league lost their position among the peoples.  Muslim league was a dominance party in
political system. Muslim league faced different political and social problems
like ethnic, linguistics, religious, provincialism and delay in constitution
making. After the departure of the great leader Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali
Jinnah and the assassination of the first prime minister of Pakistan Liaqat Ali
Khan, Muslim league could not maintain their presence in public. The Muslim
League is the founding party of Pakistan. “But after death of two national
leaders Muslim League has never been able to transform itself from a nationalist
movement a national party” (Veena Kukerja (2003), p. 5).

 So the distance between
Muslim league and common peoples increased with the passage of time. The
Government of Pakistan did not hold general election in coming eight years. The
prolong process of constitution and political intolerance in multi party system
became cause of political instability in country (Aziz KK Party politics in
Pakistan 1947-1948).   

Back ground of the study:

 Pakistan is one of the states
where multi party system is existence. The electoral alliance is natural out
coming where multi parties system was operating. Some prominent political alliances
were described here.

1.1: United
Front (UF), 1953

In the history of Pakistan 
first  pre- electoral an alliance
formed named as “United Front”(UF) in 1953.the united front lunched electoral
campaign  in country which pushed  Muslim league from the political field to the
corner in 1955 elections for the second constituent assembly (Husain Akhtar,
2008). Muslim League was totally defeated in East Pakistan election 1954.
United front emerged on the political maps of the East Pakistan. So bilateral
agreement was signed for the collision government between Muslim league and
Awami league. But Government did not bring any political stability in
country.  In 1958 military intervention
changed the political scenario of the country. General Ayub Khan said
“parliamentary democracy could not soul able for Pakistani society. Because the
people of Pakistan uneducated which easily exploited by politician and land
lords. Political parties and politician is responsible for destabilization of
institution”. Military Government banned all political parties. The offices of
all the political parties sealed by the military Government. Military
Government introduced new local government system basic democrat election in
country on non-political parties’ basis in 1962. Basic democrats were an
electoral college for presidential, national and provincial election. In 1962
three major political parties had decided to enter into an alliance in order to
compel Ayub Khan took democratic steps in the country. The National Democratic
Front (NDF), an Alliance which had formed Suharwardy by combining the Awami
League (Al) Krishnak Sarmik Party (KSP) and Jamat-e-Islami (JI).    (M. Rafique Afzal, Pakistan: History and
Politics 1947-1971 Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2001)


1.2: Combined Opposition Alliance, COP

 Before the presidential
election Ayub Khan introduced “Basic Democracy “system to legitimize and
lengthen his rule.

Political parties formed a national base political alliance
(combined opposition parties) COP in 1964. 
The political parties of COP consists of four regional political
parties, Council Muslim League, (CML) its strongest hold in Punjab and Karachi;
the Awami League,(AL) which  strongest in
East Pakistan; the National Awami Party, 
(ANP) which has strongest position 
in KPK. Election for national and provincial assembly held on 20th April
and presidential election held 2nd January 1965. And there was ‘basic
democrats’ – elected local councilors on a rural and urban level – Combined
opposition party (COP) struggled campaign for presidential candidate Miss
Fatima Jinnah. The other religious parties’ criticism over the nomination of a
female candidate for presidential election because they consider that Islam did
not allow any female to become the head of the state.  So it was a main cause that COP did not
succeed to attract the masses in favor of Miss Fatima Jinnah. (Popatai, M (2014), Op. Cit.)

presidential election of January 1965 resulted in a victory for Ayub Khan.
Presidential candidate Miss Jinnah united all the antidictatorship forces. In
election the government used official machinery, large-scale rigging and the
failure of pro Chinese sections of the left in East Pakistan to give
whole-hearted backing. The
radical religious political party Jamaat-I-Islami, surprisingly supporting the
candidacy of a woman which is against its manifesto.  COP emphasized on their nine-point program
for the restoration of parliamentary democracy. 
Ayub Khan won 63.3 percent of the Electoral College vote. His majority
was larger in West Pakistan (73.6 percent) tha


I'm Garrett!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out