Introduction Total Quality Management(TQM) could simply be explained as a structured and a comprehensive approachtowards organizational management, which aims to improve the quality ofproducts and services produced by an organization through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback(Gimenez-Espin et.al, 2013).
Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to a strategy that focuses onconstructing quality awareness in all the processes of an organization. Oakland, (2014), a renowned author of quality management, defined Total Quality as “philosophy, culture, strategy ormanagement style of a company according to which all persons in the same,study, practice, participate and promote continuous quality improvement”. Theconcept of Total Quality Management (TQM) could also be explained as acontinuous improvement process, with the aim of achieving optimal quality inall areas, which in Disney’s case would be its movies, television shows, andthe Disneyland the biggest theme park in the world. DiscussionParadigmsof Total Quality Management (TQM)The term of Total QualityManagement (TQM) is extensively used in education, government, manufacturingand service industries.The Total Quality Management consists ofthree paradigms:§ Total: Wide organization.§ Quality: With their usual definitions and all its complexities.§ Management: Management system with steps such as planning, organizing,controlling, leading, etc.
Anotheressential concept that comes under Total Quality Management (TQM) is quality, a conceptthat applies to both the product and the organization. TotalQuality Management (TQM) aims to generate a high level of customer satisfactionthrough providing them with quality care and service, which in turn results inthe generation of profits for all members of the company (Conti, 2012). Therefore,it does not only relate to the process of manufacturing a product with the solepurpose of selling, but it also covers several other aspects such as improvedworking conditions and staff training. Typesof Clients in Total Quality Management (TQM)Theconcept of total quality distinguishes two types of clients, who are identifiedas internal and external.§ Internal Clients: These are theemployees that are working within the company who are responsible forproduction of products like action figure from Toy Story, or providing serviceto the consumers at the Disneyland.The internal employee atDisneyland receive a long list of benefits, they have chances of receiving apromotion, and are recognized when they perform their jobs with excellence. AtDisneyland each and every employee is treated the same way without any distinction§ External Clients: Are the ones who buy theproducts or services offered by the company, without necessarily having anotherrelationship with this.
External customers of the Disneyland are its mainfocus; Disney goes to all extent in order to overcome their expectations from afriendly smile to the kind words of employees, the convenience and attractionsthat park offers. An example of how valuable Disney thinks of its customers isthe establishment of the intake system to the attractions of parks, whicheliminates the huge queues. The visitor removes a ticket in attracting entrythat specifies the time at which the visitor should return without facingqueue.Thus, Total QualityManagement (TQM) is a process in which efforts are added to achieve agoal and overcome it in a relevant way and improve the product or service tooffer. Total quality can be defined in two words: “ContinuousImprovement “(Talib et.
al, 2011).The responsibility rests with theleadership quality and plays an important role throughout theprocess, as long as they are better organized andblended all members of the organization, the better the work performed andprovide better results as a whole.Theconcept of TotalQuality Management (TQM) is related to another concept: the “perceivedquality” which is the perception of the consumer of the quality of a product orhow people see a company or a brand (how they sell, the types of moviesproduced by Disney, services Disney performs for helping children throughvarious CSR activities). Overall satisfaction, as the name suggests, not onlyapplies to the customers of each company, but the entire “universe” of thecompany, i.
e. to the employees and other companies that sell their products /services. Various research studies have revealed that after implementing aquality system following results are achieved such as:· Increased satisfaction customer · Internal company work more efficiently · Increased productivity · Higher profits· Lower costs· Higher quality products Disneyland’sBusiness EnterpriseWaltDisney is a huge company founded in the United States in 1923, which is namedafter its founder, Walter Elias Disney.
Walt Disney was originally closelyrelated to the production of drawings and animated films, including the famous “MickeyMouse”, who remains to be the brand ambassador of the company even today (Watts, 2013). Today, The Walt Disney Company ispresent throughout the world, and has parks, produces films, owns televisionchannels, has resorts and sells all sorts of merchandises, so there are severalcompanies within this great company.WaltDisney from its inception has always aimed to maintain a strong commitment toquality entertainment based on its legacy of exceptional quality andcreativity, managing to stay in place for many years, causing both grandparentsas small children continues to be entertained by Mickey Mouse and all hisfriends (Finch, & Disney, 2011).Throughout the years, The Walt Disney Company has grown enormous and turned outhaving four major companies in which all tasks are divided.
Among them mostsignificant is Disney Studio Entertainment. The creation and production offilms and animations are distributed to the public through “Walt DisneyPictures,” which includes Miramax Films, Pixar Animation, Walt Disney AnimationStudios, Studios, Disney Toon Studios, Touchstone Pictures and HollywoodPictures. Moreover,it has developed Disney Parks and Resorts, the company that begins with thecreation of the first theme park, Disneyland in California. Disneylandofficially Disneyland Park since the 1990s, is a park located in AnaheimCalifornia, United States.
It was the first park of its kind built by The WaltDisney Company, and the only one that was designed and built under thesupervision of producer and filmmaker Walt Disney. Disneyland was built withthe aim of diversifying the business model with the construction of anamusement park. Disneyland opened its doors to the press and invited guests onJuly 17, 1955, just over a year after that would start construction, and thenext day it was open to the public. Although some executives other parks Disneyland believed would fail, inits first week recorded an attendance of over 160,000 people. In 1957, twoyears after its opening, Disneyland was one of the major tourist attractions inthe United States, surpassing in popularity to places like the Grand Canyon orYellowstone National Park. It isestimated that 2015 has been one of the amusement parks busiest year worldwidebesides being visited by over 700 million people since its opening (Rosenberg, 2012). Walt Disney is credited with having “redefinedthe concept of family vacations” and has been listed as a “tourist mecca.” The design, divided into subject areas,proved to be a novel concept at the time and the incorporation of robots audio-animatronicsused in some of its attractions and the first roller coaster built with tubularsteel history.
DisneyConsumer Products is an enterprise of the company dedicated to the expansion ofDisney-branded products, which include a huge range of products ranging fromtoys, clothes, books, electronic games, drinks, food, to electronics and partsof art. Finally, Disney Media Networks is one area that deals with businessrelated to radio, cable television, Internet and advertising of The Walt DisneyCompany. This company has several TV channels and radios, among which could bementioned Walt Disney Internet Group, Disney-ABC Television Group, ABC OwnedTelevision Stations and ESPN Inc. As already mentioned, the company is alsoengaged in marketing, advertising, research, sales and communications of thishuge company.
Evaluationof Disneyland’s Business Enterprise’s and Developmentof TQMWaltDisney is among the few organisations of the world that has been successful inincorporating new concepts of the quality in the definition of the TotalQuality Management. With the aim of paying attention to every minute detail,Disney aims to exceed the expectations of it s guests visiting the theme park. Disneylandconsiders its guest as VIPs, and very individual people also, a factor thatcontributes towards the success of the Disney is people serving the people.Disney believes it is up to them to make life easier for the guests at the Disneyland.
Every time a guest returns back to the Disneyland there expectation are evenhigher (Ingelsson et.al, 2012). This isthe reason why Disney strictly believes in attention to minute details, andproviding its guests with VIP treatment as an extremely important factor of thesuccess of the Corporation as a whole. WaltDisney Company demonstrates exceptional quality when it comes to the operatingof Disneyland.
The focus of Disneyland is towards customer satisfaction, withspecific focus over the role of the employees in delivery of service. WaltDisney views its employees as an essential organisational resource; this is thereason why great care is taken in the hiring and training process of theemployees. At Disney all the employees are known as “cast members,” regardlessof whether they are performers, or janitors. Disney trains its employeesextensively in customer service, quality awareness and communication. Continualmonitoring of quality is considered as an essential component at Disneyland,and employees regularly meet together in order to evaluate their effectiveness.All employees are provided with a brief illustration of how the quality oftheir individual jobs contributes to the success of the Disneyland. Disney aims to provide the people visiting their theme parkwith a high level customer service.
In order to ensure that each and everycustomer visiting Disneyland experience the highest standards, Disney ensuredthat every employee has an essential role to play in contributing towards theexcellent products and services offered to the customers at Disneyland. Throughthe utilisation of Total Quality Management (TQM), Disney implemented a cultureof Innovation, Design Engineering Organization (IDEO’S), under which Disneyfollows a non-hierarchical organization culture (Malik, , 2014).Under the IDEO’S the employees at Disneyland does not rewarded based on theseniority of the ranks within the company, but the employees are rewarded basedon the number of projects that he r she has undertaken. This enabled Disney to establish a system, in which the voiceof each and every employee is being heard. Through the implementation of IDEO’SDisney succeeded in removing the existential hierarchy from its organizationalculture.
This was the willingness that was possessed by Walt Disney fordisclosing the corporate information to each and every employee working withinthe organization. Walt Disney always looked towards the facilitation ofopenness and transparency in the process of communication within theorganisation (Herzallah et.al, 2014). Disney through the adoption of TotalQuality Management (TQM) succeeded in establishing a system for effectivelyconveying the important messages to all of his employees and made them feltlike a part of the company as employees had an equally important role to playwithin the organisation. It is the employees working within the organisationthat will provide a high quality of service and products to the consumerthrough continuous feedbacks and suggestion related to improvements, which willhelp them become more competitive and ensure maintenance of high qualitystandards of Disney. Furthermore, Disney always strives to provide itsemployees an environment which is both enjoyable and productive at the sametime, and an environment in which the employees could realise their fullpotential and fulfil their career aspirations.StaffTraining at Disney Deming PrincipleEdwards Deming stated that quality does not meanluxury.
Quality is a predictable degreeof uniformity and reliability, low cost and adapted to market. In other words, quality is everything consumers need and crave (Deming, 2012). Since the needs and desires of consumers are always changing, howto define the quality with reference to the consumer is to constantly redefinethe requirements. It increases productivity while decreasing variability. Figure 1: Deming’s Cycle Thus, following the principle proposed by DemingDisneyland states that training of the staff members is necessary, and the foremostpart of their business strategy since they are providing a service to theconsumers and they can only quality service through providing their staff withhigh quality training. Following are the pointsproposed by Deming which are followed by Disney 1.
Creation of reliability of functionfor improvement of service: This vision of Disneyland guidesthe corporate culture and provides an objective to the organization. 2. Adopt the new philosophy: It is essential to continuously update itsprocess of providing adequate training to all of its employees to keep up withthe changing market and customer needs.3. Away from dependence on inspectionto achieve quality: Disneyland utilizes modern tools such as statistical process control, theevolving operations, experience design and deployment of the quality function,with the aim of assessing a problem and “inspect quality”.4. Disney looks to minimize the totalcost to operate; end the practice of allocating operations only on thebasis of price. 5.
Improve constantly and forever everyprocess: Disney believes that the process of improvementis constant and increased productivity constantly reducing costs.Through constant training to its staff members Disneyland aims to overcomes defects and improve the process. 6.
Training institute in function:AtDisneyland training applies to all levels of the organization, from thelowest to the highest. 7. Adopt and institute leadership:Disneystrongly believes in the fact that leadership comes from theknowledge, expertise and interpersonal skills, not the authority.
8. Eliminate the fear: Disneyland resolves this issue byidentifying and filling the gaps in communication, culture and training. 9. Break down barriers between staffareas: At Disneyland everyone must work as a teamtoward a common goal. Teamwork is an imperative inmodern management.
10. Eliminateslogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce:Disneyeffectively eliminates unrealistic targets for its workforce inorder to ensure high level of quality.11. Eliminatenumerical quotas for workers and numerical goals for management:Disneyhas eliminated all numerical quotas as they are not capable of considering thestatistical factors that affect all workers. Not all workers may be above average; not all below it. 12. Eliminatebarriers that prevent staff pride in the work experience: AtDisneyland it is the responsibility of supervisors to pass the volume andquality end result, and remove the barriers that prevent people from theopportunity to be proud of their work (Holt, 2012).13.
Institute aenergetic training program and self-improvement for the staff: Disneyland provides all of its cast membersadequate and effective training, theresults of the training may not manifest immediately, but often have importanteffects in the long run. Self-improvement is aprogressive task of self-development at Disneyland. 14. Make workall staff of the company to achieve transformation: AtDisneyland all the staff members are committed to the highest levels as theyunderstand that transformation is necessary. CustomerService Improvements at Disneyland Implementationof Measures Proposed Joseph Juran to Improve Quality at Disneyland Joseph explained quality as suitability for use in termsof design, shaping, availability, security and practical use and is based onsystems and techniques for solving problems (Juran,2012).
Juran focused his attention on the management view and top-downmethods or techniques rather than pride or satisfaction of the worker, a factorthat differentiates Joseph from the philosophy of Deming. Thus,Disneyland has adopted the measures proposed Joseph through which the wholestaff members at Disneyland are treated as cast members and all the seniormanagers are involved in steering down the quality system at Disney Land. AtDisneyland the quality objective has now become the part of the business planof the company (Kennedy et.al, 2013). Disney has successfully implemented the Juan Trilogymodel with the aim of effective management of total quality at the park.Disneyland utilises the following processes in order to ensure that high levelof customer service is always maintained through: • Quality Planning• Quality Control• Quality ImprovementQualityPlanning: Under this activity Disney providestraining and development to its staff member to ensure that the servicesprovided by them meet the customer requirements. In order to achieve this goalsfollowing are the activities that are performed by Disney Land. • Identify customer needs• To provide qualityservices to the customer • Develop a processcapable of ensuring a high quality of service to each and every individualvisiting Disneyland QualityControl: This is an administrative process,which includes the following steps:• To evaluate the currentprocess performance• C current performancewith quality goals (actual versus standard)• Acting on thedifferenceQualityImprovement: In the list of priorities forDisneyland improving quality occupies first place.
In this sense, it hasdeveloped a structured proposal, which includes a list of non-delegableresponsibilities for senior executives:• Create theinfrastructure: institute a quality advice; select improvement projects;designate equipment; providing facilitators.• Provide training on howto provide quality service to the customer • Review the qualityprogress regularly• Reward and appreciatethe winning teams• Promote the results• Studying the rewardsystem to accelerate the pace of improvement• Maintaining themomentum to expand the business to include the goals of quality improvementplans Figure 2: Juan TrilogyModel Six SigmaItis a revolutionary approach to measuring and improving management quality hasbecome a standard method for the management of quality at Disneyland, as ithelps the company to meet the needs of customers and providing high quality ofservice (Evans, & Lindsay, 2014). There are several technique used byDisneyland under this TQM technique which includes; Design,communication, training, production, management, losses, etc. However, themanagement of Disneyland still believes that the possibilities for improvementand cost savings are enormous, but the Six Sigma process requires commitment oftime, talent, dedication, persistence and, of course, financial investment.Following are some of the principles of Six Sigma that are being followed byDisneyland. Leadership engaged from top to bottom. At Disneyland this methodology involves a change in how to conduct operations and make decisions.
The strategy is supported and committed from the highest levels of management to the bottom level of employees. Six Sigma is based on a management structure that includes full-time staff. Disneyland manifests the commitment to Six Sigma by creating a management structure that integrates business leaders, projects, experts and facilitators. Each of the actors in the Six Sigma program requires specific training workouts. Disneyland provides all of its employees training through different training programs and ensures that the employees must take extensive training, known as curriculum of a black belt. Customer-oriented and focused on processes.
Disneyland seeks that all processes meet customer requirements and quality standards and meet the performance standards of Six Sigma. AtDisneyland the Six Sigma programs are based on an intense policy ofcommunication between all members and departments within the organization andoutside the organization (Basu, & Wright,2012). This ensures that all theemployees are well aware of the current happening within the organisation andare connected with the changes that are being made in the organisation. Bench MarkingDisneylandhas implemented a highly effective and efficient benchmarking system forrewarding and appraising the performance of its employees. Disneyland does not reward based on the seniority ofthe ranks within the company, but the employees are rewarded based on thenumber of projects that he or she has undertaken (Sweis et.al, 2015).
Along, with that Disneyland also conductedexternal and internal benchmarking programs with the aim of evaluating theperformance of its cast members in order to effectively hand the staff memberswhich are the most essential assets of Disneyland. Conclusion Thus, in the end it could beconcluded that the companies like Disney that are applyingTotalQuality Management by establishing close relationship with its employees andfacilitating them through continuous training and development to ensure theprovision of high quality of products and services to the customer visiting theDisneylandwill be the one to succeed, and generate higher profits. A high levelof customer satisfaction can only be achieved through providing them with highquality of care and maintaining strong standards which are something thatDisney have been doing successfully for years. Thus, the success of the Disneylandseems to correlate with the ability of Disney to adhere to its vision andpromoting its core values which is high level of service to customers throughits employees. Recommendations Listed below are some of the recommendations forDisneyland: Implementation and adoption of an integrated approach of TQM and Quality Assurance Conducting a thorough investigation of the various TQM approaches and adopting the one that is more suitable for the company All the employees must completely appreciate and support the TQM process, and they must participate actively in its implementation It is highly crucial that at Disneyland both the technical and humanistic aspects of TQM are addressed with the help of a training effort. Furthermore, the training needs to be tailored as the job functions.