Introduction to Music #3

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Last updated: November 23, 2019

monody
vocal style established in the Baroque, with a solo singer and instrumental accompaniment

Doctrine of the Affections
Baroque doctrine of the union of text and music

basso continuo
italian for “continuous bass.” also refers to performance group with a bass, chordal instrument and one bass melody instrument (cello, bassoon)

figured bass
baroque practice consiting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer

castrato
male singer who was castrated during boyhood to preserve the soprano or alto vocal register, prominent in seventeeth and early eighteenth century opera

opera
music drama that is generally sung throughout, combining the resources of vocal and instrumental music with poetry and drama, acting and pantomime, scenery and costumes

libretto
text or script of an opera, oratoria, cantata, or musical written by a librettist.

recitative
solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style

aria
lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion

cantata
vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative, generally consists of several movements, including recitatives, arias and ensemble numbers

oratorio
large scale dramatic genre originating in the baroque, based on text of religious or serious character, performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; similar to opera but without scenery, costumes, or action

overture
an introductory movement, as in an opera or oratorio, often presenting melodies from arias to come, also an orchestral work for concert performance

solo concerto
instrumental genre in several movements for solo instrument (or instrumental group) and orchestra

concerto grosso
baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments and orchestra

sonata de camera
baroque chamber sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances

sonata de chiesa
baroque instrumental work intended for performance in church; in four movements, frequently arranged slow-fast-slow-fast

trio sonata
baroque chamber sonata type written in three parts:two melody lines and the basso continuo; requires a total of four players to perform

suite
multimovement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movement, generally all in the same key

ground bass
a repeating melody, usually in the bass, throughout a vocal or instrumental composition

prelude
instrumental work preceding a larger work

fugue
polyphonic form popular in the baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint

date of the middle ages?
476-1450

date of the renaissance?
1450-1600

date of the baroque?
1600-1750

true or false: Purcell is considered to be a composer of England’s 1st important opera
true

true or false: the rejection of Italian opera is reflected in the French opera style associated with the composer Jean-Baptiste
True

true or false: the earliest opera plots were drawn from real-life situations
false

true or false: the masque was an English entertainment that combined music and poetry
true

true or false: Monteverdi was one of the first great composer of opera
true

true or false: despite being created in England, Purcell’s opera were sung in Italian
false

What is the for monteverdi’s opera The coronation of Poppea
Roman history

the most important new genre of the Baroque was:
opera

an operatic song in the form A-B-A, which allows for the soloist to embellish the last section, is called a:
de capo aria

an aria in an opera is characterized by:
tuneful and highly emotive melodies

the text of an opera is known as:
libretto

where was Purcell employed when he wrote Dido and Aeneas?
he was a music teach in an all girl’s school

what is the structural basis for Dido’s aria?
ground bass

the term “accompagnato” as opposed to “secco” describes a recitative in which:
the orchestra accompanies the recitative

The two instruments that provided Baroque accompaniment as a pair are referred to as?
basso continuo

Baroque composers often employed the doctrine of the affections in their works, resulting in:
one mood throughout the piece or movement

the artificially created male soprano, popular in the Baroque, is referred to as:
castrato

true or false: the Baroque was characterized by the predominant use of major-minor tonality
true

the baroque marks the introduction of solo song with instrumental accompaniment, called:
monody

true or false: the Baroque era was one of exploration and conquest
true

true or false: as musical instruments developed technically, the level of virtuosity rose in the Baroque
true

true or false: Bach wrote in most Baroque genres, except chamber music
false

true or false: J.

S. Bach’s church cantatas are single movement works

false

true or false: Handel’s career was solely based on positions held in Germany
false

true or false: the name cantata is derived from the Italian cantare, to sing
true

what is not true of Baroque oratorio?
it utilized scenery, acting, and costumes, just as in opera

true or false: many of Bach’s cantatas are based on Protestant chorale or hymn tunes
true

for which church did Bach write his cantatas?
Lutheran

the Baroque song concerto that is characterized by a solo instrument and orchestra is the:
solo concerto

a multimovement form based on the opposition of one player against a larger group:
solo concerto

what is the unifying procedure in the first movement of the Spring concerto?
ritornello

which Baroque composer was known as the “red priest”?
Antonia Vivaldi

the solo instrument featured in Vivaldi’s Spring concerto is the:
violin

What make the Four Seasons a programmatic work?
it is based on a set of poems, one for each season

true or false: the two most popular types of concerto in the Baroque era were the solo concerto and the solo grosso
true

true or false: the strings of Baroque violin were made out of wrapped steel
false

true or false: a Baroque suite is originally a group of dances
true

where was the water music performed on July 17,1717?
for a royal party on the Thames River

Guarneri,Stradivarius, and Amati were all noted Baroque makers of which instruments?
violin

true or false: during the Baroque era, instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in history
true

Baroque trumpets were still “natural” meaning they:
they were without valves

true of false: recently, Baroque ensembles have sought to perform Baroque music authentically, on baroque style instruments
true

J.S. Bach and Handel were both masters on which instrument?
organ

what genre is a group of dance movements, usually in the same key?
suite

true or false: a ground bass is found in form built on repeating bass line
true

true or false: J.S. Bach’s most comprehensive example of contrapuntal writing in his Art of Fugue
true

which Baroque keyboard instrument had strings that were plucked by quills?
harpsichord

true or false: augmentation refers to a melody in which the note values are made longer
true

a melody that is stated backward is said to be in:
retrograde

true or false: the piano was the most popular Baroque keyboard instrument
false

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