Introduction to Poetry Key terms and Concepts

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Last updated: December 13, 2019

Course Heuristic
Images, Genre & Mode, Speaker, Words, Lines, Stanzas

Major Poetic Movement of the Modern Era
Imagism, Surrealism, Confessionalist poetry and Language Poetry

Imagism
“an image is which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time”- Ezra Pound, does not mean its made up of images all poems are made up of images, short, concrete and concise language, not personal/ cannot see poet

Surrealism
“the world of dream and the real world are one and the same”-Andre Breton, attempted to portray, express, or interpret the workings of the subconscious mind, dreamlike images, non logical structure. Be fearless and get weird.

Confessionalist
confessionalist poets write from material from their own lives, does not equal first person, normally a poem about a deep sorrow, pain or taboo like suicide or homicidal thoughts

Language
highly meta poetic, rejects first person, rejects unified poem, use of multiple discourses( a language by a group) rejects the neo-confessional lyric

Genres
epic, dramatic and lyric

Mode
lyric, narrative, and metapoetic

Epic
long narrative, tale of hero

Dramatic
Plays (think of Shakespeare), Dramatic Monologue, Speaker takes on a persona

Lyric
Sestina, Villanelle, elegy, ballad, sonnet

Lyric (as a mode)
personal expression. mental process: perception, description, emotion, ideas, internal/psychological

Narrative
storytelling, sequence of events, focus on external world/ sociological

metapoetic
focus on language itself, poetry about poetry, meta fiction, attention to process of writing/ creating poem, language poetry

elegy
a poem of serious reflection, lament of the dead

epic
long narrative about heroic dead

dramatic monoluge
narrative by imagined person revenging aspects

ballad
narrating in short stanzas

lyric
expressing the writer’s emotions

villanelle
19 line poem

sestina
6 stanzas final triplet

Shakespearean Sonnet
4 quatrains 2 rhyming couplets

Spencerian Sonnet
5 possible rhymes

Petrarchan Sonnet
Italian sonnet, consisting of an octave and a meter of abbaabba, 8 line stanza then split into 6 line stanza

cataletic foot
an incomplete foot or lacking of syllable at end, in falling rhymes (trochaic and dactylic)

feminine ending
in rising rhyme scheme, a line in verse that ends with an unstressed syllable

metonomy
use of a closely associated term

synechdoche
use of part of a whole

blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter

free verse
no regular rhyme or meter

iambic pentameter
the default meter of the English language

dimeter
2 beats

trimeter
3 beats

tetrameter
4 beats

petameter
5 beats

hexemeter
6 beats

alliteration
repetition of an initial sound

assonance
repetition of a vowel sound (Scott/Squall)

consonance
repetition of constant patter w/ different vowels (pitter /patter)

Liquids
R, L, W

Nasals
M N NG

Plosives
P B T D K G

Fricatives
F V H TH

Sibilants
S Z SH

High Vowel Sounds
I (buy) A (bay) E (bee)

Low Vowel Sounds
oo (boo) o (home) o (hook) aw *(brought) oi (buy) ow (bough) ah (bar)

diction
the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing

connotation
an idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning

denotation
the literal or primary meaning of a word

Anaphora
repetition of opening word

Antithesis
opposition of A and B

Appostion
list of different formulations of the same thing

Chiamus
an X like arrangement

metaphor
comparison without like or as

anticlimax
a disappointing end to an exciting or impressive series of events

catalouge
verse that presents a list of people, objects or abstract qualities

rhetorical question
rhetorical question may have an obvious answer but the questioner asks rhetorical questions to lay emphasis to the point.

In literature, a rhetorical question is self-evident and used for style as an impressive persuasive device.

aposhrophe
direct address to an absent person or nonhuman thing

paradox
a statement or proposition that, despite sound (or apparently sound) reasoning from acceptable premises, leads to a conclusion that seems senseless, logically unacceptable, or self-contradictory.

onomnapiea
the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named (e.g., cuckoo, sizzle ).

parallelism
the state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way.the use of successive verbal constructions in poetry or prose that correspond in grammatical structure, sound, meter, meaning

periphrasis
he use of indirect and multiple words within speech or writing.an indirect and circumlocutory phrase

personification
the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.

pun
a joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words that sound alike but have different meanings

simile
a comparison using like or as

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