Introduction: wider concerns related to text. ‘Individualism and


essay is about Emile Durkheim’s theory of ‘Individualism and the intellectuals’
which is introduced by Steven Lukes. 
Lukes is trying to shed the light on the political studies, liberalism
and value of an individual in the political society. Steven Lukes was born on
1941 in north eastern England.  He is a
social theorist and British political. 
Lukes completed his study at Royal Grammar School in Newcastle upon Tyne
in 1958.  He went to Oxford as a student
to study philosophy, politics and economics at Oxford and then he got more
interested in sociology which was not really an existence much in Oxford than.
In 1968, he completed his doctorate on the work of Emile Durkheim.  Currently he is working as a professor at New
York university teaching politics and sociology. He was a widower; he has three
children from his previous marriage.   In
2006 April, Lukes married Katha Pollitt who is a political commentator and an
author. He has a profound influence on his career of Emile Durkheim who was a
French sociologist and a philosopher who can help us to understand why
capitalism makes us richer and yet frequently more miserable. 

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this section I am going to summarize the text which was introduced by Steven
Lukes he has republished Emile Durkheim’s theory of ‘Individualism and the
intellectuals”.  Further we discuss
theorist wider concerns related to text. ‘Individualism and the intellectuals’
is highly inaccessible and minor known essay written by a wonderful sociologist
‘Emile Durkheim’.  Lukes is saying that
there are so many reasons to why he is explaining, translating and republishing
this article.  This has been written by
Durkheim in the response of political and social crisis when he was at the top
of his authority. First, it is to provide some input of political theory which
is the agreement of opinion of all the students of politics and sociology to
give respect to the main cause of modern political stupidity, corruption not
working in the best feasible way.  It is
not often asking the main reason for the existence of completely unacceptable
state of affair is the indifference by the public, specially their most
important and intelligent for political members for political questions and
practical administration.  Mostly current
plans for reconstruction of modern political life have their own purpose.  There are two promising program which have
been put onwards are the proposal to enhance the scope and importance of local
government and more urban planning which seeks to manage development in an
equitable and community based manner for substituting direct representation of
economic and professional interest in political parties.  One of the most important contributions for
this mode of solution has given by Emile Durkheim.  He provides a history of ideas, finalized by
systems, theories and current schools.  Moreover,
it includes the ideas which are social who works in the premises of classic
cycle theories.  Thus, by merging two
different perspectives together Durkheim’s work findings are the point of view
of much more ideas with socio pedagogical receptiveness and to the study
ideology hence Durkheim cannot provide systematic analysis of the ideology concept,
but he uses the term and proposes of the point. 
Secondly it is of interest in history and thirdly it provides details
and speaks about the idea of its author.

to this political theory here we are discussing the ability to talk about in
the support of liberalism which presents the key issues of the moral basis of
person’s rights, the criteria and limitation of politically set obligation
further we discuss the rights and acceptance of authority, what are the
responsibility of an intellectuals and the positive effect of liberalism.  In this text Durkheim’s explain the rights of
an individual by focusing the principle of respect of a person. According to
which a human is consider as an individual who has a status of moral as well as
religious rights.  This principle set
limitation for political obligation set by the political party.  State cannot blame a person because individual
rights are much more important than State. Moreover, he refuses to agree and do
argue by giving his point of views based on moral and ethical reasons rather
than religious beliefs.  Where the
ability to do something is being considered very important and agreeing with
expert’s opinion is logically justified. The issues which are related to the
common judgment of men such deference is opposite to the reason.  Here comes the responsibility of the
intellectual to use logic in thinking for a problem of moral and cultural
values considering the warmth and excitement of the crowd and image of the

Durkheim’s narrates that a complete dedication should be given to an individual
liberty and Political liberty should depend by working on political and social
norms.  The negative eighteen century
liberalism should be fulfilled for the upcoming progress and must be finalized
and accomplished. As we consider the eighteen-century formulation of
individualism should correct and practice it without modification.  Somehow it was reliable a decade ago but now
it should be completed and modified because it presents individualism
negatively. In this text theorist is addressing the political rights of an
individual and indicates that they have all kind of moral, ethical and social
values.  He further explains that all the
restrictions which were set by politics got some limitation by new principle of
liberalism.  He elaborates liberalism in
an advantage for society.  He involves
Durkheim’s theory on individualism and the intellectual in his career and
considers it the most reliable theory, according to which an individual’s
freedom is consider as the most significance part of the politics.  Government is there for the safety of an
individual and state has no right to overrule an individual’s liberty. The
intellectuals have some responsibility to solve the problems and improve
judgment in decision making.  We cannot
compromise an individual liberty at any cause and all the aspects of social and
political norms must by consider under political liberty. Individualism is a
moral, political or social outlook that stresses human independence and the
importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. As to author’s concern the
intellectuals put their reasoning higher than authority because according to
them individual’s rights are inalienable. 

to Karl Marx an Individual’s freedom and nature relates to a society.
Individualism is an ideology and political philosophy which indicate the value
of an individual.  It is the key concept
in liberalism infect it is a core concept. 
Individualism has supreme importance in terms of the rights and in terms
of need over a collective group.  Society
is basically just an aggregation of an individual. This idea is very different
from the idea of collectivism which we see particularly in socialism,
traditional concept, even in Islamic ideas. 
While we individual is subsumed with in a collective of a nation and
collective of a class which is a working class or even in the family.  Individual comes first logically and morally
prior to society.

theory of individualism- according to him the concept of individualism is
described as theological foundation. The creator of the world creates all his
creation same hence every individual is considered equal to other individual;
no one has right to rule over other. 
Every individual should respect the rights of other individual.  Therefore; human freedom is founded on
religious doctrine in Locke’s concept of individualism. The aspects of
liberalism such as anti salivary, anti-imperialism, anti-racist,
anti-homophobic put the individual first. Kant (an alignment philosopher)
argues that individuals are “ends in themselves” he emphasis the course of
dignity and the individual worth for every human being. Locke emphasis
universal human rights where he argues that no one ought to harm another in his
life, health, liberty and possessions. So, for Locke the individual comes first,
and they may form a social contract to join society to be better off.
Individualism makes an individual the more focus on the fundamental importance
to its premises, there are three aspects such as Liberalism, existentialism and
anarchism these are the movements which make the human as a main part of
analysis.  Individualism must evaluate as
the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization.  They have the freedom to write, think
according to their own way. Individualism in American literature; at the end of
the nineteenth and at the start of Twentieth century the concept of
Individualism in American author’s prospective referred as the dominant
priority of an individual on the ground of self-standing and personal growth.
Moreover, Walt Whitman is the first revolution voice of individualism, through
his poems “Song of Myself” he relates individuals in social surrounding to a
blade of grass, he described the fact that everyone should acknowledge and be
proud of the services and part perform by each individual in this world. John
Stuart Mill’s theory on Individualism-Before Mill’s input of individualism;
Kant had redesigned Locke’s views.  He
rejects the grounds which are related to study for individuals and instead
accept grounds related to metaphysics. 
Mill’s wishes his theory on individualism widely acceptable by removing
the need of theological foundation as well as metaphysic foundation and wants
his theory to totally base on physiological concept regarding pain and
pleasure.  Mill’s somehow rejected the
need of social contract and stated: “A favourite contrivance has been the
fiction of a contract, whereby at some unknown period all the members of
society engaged to obey the laws, and consented to be punished for any
disobedience to them; thereby giving to their legislators the right, which it
is assumed they would not otherwise have had, of punishing them, either for
their own good or for that of society … I need hardly remark, either for their
own good or for that of fiction, this maxim is not superior in authority to the
others which it is brought in to supersede.” Mill clearly rejects the concept
of binding.  Therefore, rather than put
his concept of individualism on metaphysics, theological and contractual
foundation; he surrounded his theory with psychology.  Mill’s theory of individualism believed that
individuals have ultimate authority of their own action, so he considers it the
strongest course of action for liberalism. Dewey’s views- rather than
presenting his theory based on previously explained concepts Dewey make his
theory according to the existent situation. 
America had become depend on each other and worked as collective
orientation.  Hence, he thought the
collectively working environment should be practice in order to meet the
current needs. Dewey believes that the solution of the problem has been already
mentioned earlier. By exercising the “best knowledge and the best intellectual’s
methods” we can use social knowledge given by experts and modify it according
to current situation using the knowledge of how to tackle the situation.
British ambassador to the United States (1907–13), wrote in The American
Commonwealth (1888), “Individualism, the love of enterprise, and the pride in
personal freedom have been deemed by Americans not only their choicest, but
their peculiar and exclusive possession.” The intellectual is involved in
brainstorming, some sort of critical thinking and research work towards society
and find solution for its problem. 
Somehow the intellectual takes participation in politics either to
support or to defend injustice by deference, editing or rejecting an ideology
and by supporting the system of value. When we involve intellectuals in the
political circumstances that particular intellectual has some major
responsibility towards the nation and its duties.  They should have uses their mind and exercise
their ideas most likely.  They can come
from any part of life; they should involve all their knowledge in order to, but
they should believe that they know everything and put all their effort to give
rational judgment. The intellectuals consist of enlightened elite who involves
in political matters to give guidance to the masses for their objective
interest.  The role of the intellectuals derived
from an ethical system that relies on reason to explore objective justice.  Intellectuals demand that because of reason
ability they have access to the universe.



conclusion, in order to sum-up the whole text; Steven Lukes sheds light on the
theory of Emile Durkheim about ‘Individualism and the intellectuals” which
shows the importance of an individual considering its moral, ethical, social
and religious rights above than State. 
Here he mentioned the duties of the intellectuals towards all the
decisions which they make.  He further
elaborates and do argue that the liberalism which was taking negatively in
eighteen centuries should be re-condition in order to accomplished and
completed.  He further explains that
liberalism has positive impact on society. The overall agenda of this
particular text is to describe the procedure through which individuals socially
consolidate into society and to provide a sample for understanding the relation
between the individual and their society. 
Durkheim believes that every individual holds some quality which makes
him different from one another; these differences set all of us apart with in a
society.  Every individual has their own
quality of thought, influences, desires and other things.  They gave more importance to individual
liberty rather than political liberty; an individual is not responsible for all
the social and economic situation of the country. 


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