INTRODUCTIONPeople live in the world where everything is about music. Everything they hear and anything they produce are became a sound, and these unity of sounds change to a rhythm. The water drop in the river is a rhythm. How the wind blows in the coral rocks also become a rhythm. That is how the rhythm keeps anything to be music. Music is something that people cannot touch like an exist thing.
It agrees with the meaning of music by Leo Samama (2016: 27-33) on his book, “Music is also ephemeral. We cannot hold it like a book, a painting or a sculpture, so it is ephemeral over time.”Even music is not visible thing, people can still feel the existing of the music. They will feel and understand the music if they hear. From listening, they will accept the meaning of what they hear. From ear to brain and heart, the feeling will go inside.
Emotion exists. Not only does the emotion exist in the music, but also exist in the text of the song, on the lyric itself. That emotion is the thing that the song writer wants from people to understand the meaning that is delivered.Song has a story. It tells and narrates something to people. It has following assertion inside on what is mentioned before on the story. It is called as entailment. Then, song lyrics have entailment.
Different with presupposition that speaker may assume what kind of thing to be case in making utterance, entailment is following the utterance that assert in logic. Song lyrics also have logical assumption from the listener. Presupposition is signed by the speaker and not sentence. Then entailment is signed by the sentence and not the speaker, (Yule, 1998). It concludes that song lyrics that are full of sentences are also part of entailment. However, each people will have different logical interpretations about the story. Such as the meaning, people will also have different understanding about the song lyrics.
It is normal if the entailments in the text that people get are different from one person to other. The reason is because entailment is regardless the fact from right and wrong.This discussion is about entailment as the focus of analysis and only concern to the entailment that is exist in the song lyrics. It is a descriptive qualitative analysis using the song by Will Jennings. It agrees with the study of David Silverman (2010) that the qualitative analysis is the works using words and non-numerical data to collect the meaning and understanding through the study. Then, it takes the descriptive data using the written and oral subject of the research.This analysis is using the data context of entailment of the song lyrics My Heart Will Go On which is known as official soundtrack or the main theme song of the movie Titanic in 1997. As the primary data source, it uses the song of Will Jennings and the lyrics script of the My Heart Will Go On song.
Then, to support this analysis, the secondary data sources are theory, book, and journal that are related to this study.To give information about the short history of the song, it is firstly made by James Horner as the instrumental music in the movie, Titanic. Then to make this main theme of the movie, finally he decided to make a full song with the lyrics that is written by Will Jennings. Then it is sung by Celine Dion in 1997.
The Titanic movie itself is talking about the old women called Rose who shares about her love story in the past. She was a rich lady who went with her family in the great ship named Titanic. She was frustrated with her life that always got bridle by her parents that was upper class in society. Then her life changed after she met Jack that saved her in that ship. They used their time to meet each other till they fell in love, even though their feeling was refused by everybody around them. The ending of this movie is when Jack died because he wanted to save Roses life after the ship sunk.
Because the analysis is from the lyrics source, here is lyrics transcript as the text and sentence terms of the song:My Heart Will Go OnEvery night in my dreamsI see you, I feel you,That is how I know you go onFar across the distanceAnd spaces between usYou have come to show you go onNear, far, wherever you areI believe that the heart does go onOnce more you open the doorAnd you’re here in my heartAnd my heart will go on and onLove can touch us one timeAnd last for a lifetimeAnd never let go ’til we’re goneLove was when I loved youOne true time I hold toIn my life we’ll always go onYou’re here, there’s nothing I fear,And I know that my heart will go onWe’ll stay forever this wayYou are safe in my heartAnd my heart will go on and onThe analysis will formulate the problem statements such as the type of entailment and th order of entailment that exist in the lyrics of the song My Heart Will Go On. This analysis also has objective which is based on the formulation that is to classify the type of the entailment and to describe the order of the entailment.DISCUSSIONSeems like what already explain before, entailment is following the utterance that assert in logic. Sources state that entailment is not a concept in pragmatics study, because it agrees with the speaker meaning, (Yule, 1998b). However, the entailment itself has few types such as one-way entailment, two-way entailment, negative entailment and metaphorical entailment.
Griffiths (2006) states that one-way and two-way entailment have the difference about its relation. One-way entailment is on one relation, where the sentences are in the same meaning to make the idea clear. This relation means that one sentence will be explained more by the next sentence, so those sentences will relate and collaborate as the additional explanation of the idea. While two-way entailment is the opposite, where the sentences are not the same but still in the same meaning and in the related value.
Here it is known as paraphrasing or rewording, where the sentences usually use synonym or paraphrase.The next type is stated by Murphy (2003) on his Semantic Relation and the Lexicon book. It is negative entailment, where the sentences use negative form to create meaning. Then, the last type is stated by Crouch (2003) which is metaphorical entailment, where the sentences use metaphor term in expressing something.Entailment also has 2 type of its order, such as background entailment and foreground entailment.
Background entailment is generally related to the truth of large number of its entailment. It will give information about the context, while foreground entailment is the main assumption of the text.Then foreground entailment is classified as two indication of entailment by linguistic device. The devices are clefting and stressing. Clefting is also known as it-cleft construction, (Yule, 1998c). It will help people to focus on particular part of the sentence and to convince what people want to say or the deep meaning of what people try to send. Clefting adds a new part to the sentence to make the listener more give attention to that added part.
The next is stressing. It is stress or emphasize in the utterance. It will help the listener to interpret the intended meaning.
The stress is actually can be identify clearly in the live oral text that depends on the word that will be emphasized by the speaker. For example, I did not mean to hit you, which has a meaning that the speaker makes emphasize that he/she really did not have a purpose to hit others. Go on to the topic of this analysis, here are the analyses of the lyrics on each verse based on the literature review that is stated above.Verse 1: Every night in my dreamsI see you, I feel you,That is how I know you go onThe verse 1 belongs to the type of metaphorical entailment. Here, the sentences explain that the speaker can see and feel the character you in the dream, where people may assume that dream is not enough to conclude that speaker will know how the character you truly go on. Therefore it also agrees with the hyperbole term.
This verse also has orders both in background and foreground entailment, the background entailment is such as;- Someone dreams every night.- Someone can see and feel you.- Someone does something in her night dreams. It is also using foreground entailment in clefting because there are new parts that do not exist in the lyrics to explain about the meaning of the song. This clefting is clearly stated in the last sentence of the verse 1, That is how I know you go on. The words that is has a meaning to state new part to conclude the whole story. The speaker is also making a stress to the song by using word you and repeating this word in every sentence. Then the word I and you also make assumption that the focus of this story inside the song is the character I and you that is the symbol of the character Rose and Jack.
Verse 2:Far across the distanceAnd spaces between usYou have come to show you go onThe verse 2 is classified as both one-way entailment and two-way entailment. It is one-way entailment where the word far is more explained by the word distance. Here people will understand that the meaning of far is about distance without stating the word distance. The two-way entailment is on the words distance and spaces. Here the word distance in the first sentence is restated and replaced as spaces where those words have the same meaning. Then it has orders that also in the background entailment, such as;- Something across the distance and spaces between them.- Someone comes to show something.
– Someone goes on.Verse 3:Near, far, wherever you are (1)I believe that the heart does go on (2)Once more you open the door (3)And you’re here in my heart (4)And my heart will go on and on (5)The verse 3 is known as the reff of the song, and it is also one-way entailment, where the sentence (1) is explained more by the sentence (2), and sentence (3) is explained more by the sentence (4), then the whole verse is explained more and clearly in the last or sentence (5) to conclude that the speakers heart will go and keep the character you on. This verse uses both background and foreground entailment, the background entailment is such as;- Wherever something is, I believe in something. – Once more, something does open the door. – Something here in my heart.- My heart will do something.
Then the foreground entailment is expressed in stressing device. It is when the words go on and on have a meaning that the speakers heart always goes on and still keeps alive in her life whether the distance is near or far.Verse 4:Love can touch us one timeAnd last for a lifetimeAnd never let go ’til we’re goneThis verse is also metaphorical entailment, where it uses the noun love to touch and keep it inside the character till they died. Here it is metaphor because the noun love is personified and pictured like human who can do something like people do. This verse is not only classified as metaphorical entailment, but is also negative entailment in the last sentence by using negative term never.
Its order is also background entailment from the lyrics such as;- Something can touch us one time.- Love can do something.- Something never let go ’til we’re gone.Verse 5:Love was when I loved youOne true time I hold toIn my life we’ll always go onIt is metaphorical entailment again, where it uses the love to picture as something to be the additional character in the song. It is also background entailment, such as;- Something was when I loved you.- Love was sometime.- In something theyll always go on.- In my lie well always do something.
Here in the verse 4 and 5 the speaker wants to show that their loves will be saved till the end of their life. She knows and realizes that Jack is gone because of dead, but she still believe that the love never let their hearts go.Verse 6: You’re here, there’s nothing I fear,And I know that my heart will go onWe’ll stay forever this wayYou are safe in my heartAnd my heart will go on and onThe verse 6 is known as the climax or the top of conflict where it is classified as negative entailment in the first sentence and one-way entailment in the next sentences. The word nothing is also negative term, so it belongs to negative entailment that the speaker do not have fearin anything because she believes the character you are there with her. The one-way entailment is from the last sentences where the speaker always uses the words go on and on. The speaker also states that they will stay and save one another in their heart, then let their heart goes on and on. It also uses background and foreground entailment, the background entailment such as;- Someone is here.
– Youre here, there is nothing I do. – I know something. – I know that my heart will do something. – Something is safe in my heart. – And my heart will do something.
It is also foreground or clefting in the first sentence by the words There is nothing I fear. The words that is has a meaning to state new part and to conclude that nothing can make the speaker fear.FINDING From the discussions that are explained above, researcher will conclude that the results of the analysis are;- One-way entailment and metaphorical entailment are equal as the types that are usually used (both are in the 33,3%).- The third position is negative entailment type (22,2%) and the last is two-way entailment type (11,1%). – Background entailment (66,67%) is higher than foreground entailment (33,33%).- Foreground entailment is shared as two devices, those are clefting and stressing, where the clefting is more used in the 22,22% and stressing is in 11,11%. The count is used by classifying the type and the order first, every classification is got proportion as 1 point. For example in the verse 6, the types are one-way entailment (1 point) and negative entailment (1 point) and the orders are clefting divice as foreground entailment (1 point) and background entailment (1 point), researcher makes the total point as 4.
Then, the total point will be counted in percentage.Type/Verse123456One-way entailment-vv–vTwo-way entailment-v—-Negative entailment—v-vMetaphorical entailmentv–vv-The total point is 9 with 3 point of one-way entailment, 1 point two-way entailment, 2 point negative entailment, and 3 point metaphorical entailment.The percentage value :one-way entailment : 3 x 100%= 33,33%9two-way entailmen : 1 x 100%= 11,11%9negative entailment : 2 x 100%= 22,22%9metaphorical entailment : 3 x 100%= 33,33%9Order/Verse123456Foreground entailmentCleftingv—-vStressing–v—Background entailmentvvvvvvThe total point is 9 with 3 point of foreground entailment (2 point clefting entailment, 1 point stressing entailment) and 6 point background entailment.foreground entailment : 3 x 100%= 33.33% 9clefting : 2 x 100%= 22,22% 9stressing : 1 x 100%= 11,11% 9background entailment : 6 x 100%= 66,67% 9From here researcher concludes that on the sentences or utterances, people commonly use one one-way entailment and background entailment because those are the basic way to entail something. Then, because of this object is a song and its lyrics, the sentences also use metaphorical entailment. The reason is because song is like poetry which usually uses metaphor in expressing something.
Even the stressing device is commonly used in real conversation, but here the stressing is less because like what people know that song is musical art, so the tone or the pitch is depended on the music or rhythm. CONCLUSIONResearcher assumes that all the types of entailment and the orders of the entailment are used in every verse or sentence in the lyrics, because song lyrics are also sentences from utterances. This analysis is interesting to do because no researcher already analysed this topic before by using the lyrics as the object. In the song of My Heart Will Go On, the entailment is analysed in each verse with the final result above. The evidences are when the verse uses the background or foreground or both entailments, it also uses clefing or stressing device, and it also classifies the type of the entailment of the verse as one-way, two-way, negative or metaphorical entailment.
Then, talking about the significance of this analysis as the end of this discussion, it hopefully can give benefits to the readers and make a contribution both to the theoretical part and practical part. This analysis is expected to be useful in the study of linguistics. The information and the knowledge will also help people who are interested in making the other linguistic analysis that is related in entailment.Students who are majoring language will have the linguistics material.
They need more knowledge about it, especially in the entailment problems as their reference of study. This research will also help people in general to be the readers who try to improve their knowledge in linguistics, mainly in entailment analysis. It is also a kind choice if the next researcher will be able to make better analysis about entailment with the certain theory and understanding about it, and also able to share with expert and master about this topic.REFERENCESPrinted SourceCrouch, Richard. (2003). Scalability of Redundancy Detection in Focused Document Collections. Berlin: Cascadilla Press.
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