Israeli/Palestinian Conflict

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Last updated: May 10, 2019

Palestinians
Arabs, mostly muslim, fought Turks in WWI, saw Holy Land of Israel as sacred to them. Live in Occupied Terrritory-West Bank and Gaza Strip

The Zionist Movement
Political Movement to support homeland in Israel for Jewish people. Established State of Israel in 1948.

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Balfour Declaration
1916 – 1947 Palestine controlled by British.

Interested in area due to oil. British Secretary Arthur Balfour declares that Palestine is the national home of the Jews, and the British government supports them

Holocaust
Nazi Germany killing of 6 million JewsThree effects:Jews into PalestineWorld wide Jewish sympathySupport for making Palestine a Jewish state

Israel Founded
Announced in 1948 by David Ben GurionLed to Arab-Israeli war

UN Partition Plan
In 1947 after British Mandate ended.Divided Palestine between Jews and ArabsArabs protested and Jews mixed support

Arab-Israeli War(1948)
Arabs attack Jews on day British Mandate ends and one day after State of Israel announced. Israel wins.Truce 1949 – Jews gained lots of landArabs – West Bank and Gaza Strip

Palestine Refugees
750,000 forced to leave after Arab-Israeli war

Pan Arabism
Nasser’s idea that all Arabs should work together

6 Day War (June 5 – 10 1967)
The 1967 Arab-Israeli WarEgypt closed Suez canal to Israeli shipsIsrael attacks- complete victoryDoubles size of landGets Sinai peninsula-south; Golan Heights-north

President Anwar Sadat
Takes over Egypt after Nasser’s deathWants Arabs to get Sinai Peninsula back

Yom Kippur War
October War 1973 – Egypt under Sadat, and Syria attack Israel on Yom Kippur. Israel able to repel attackIsrael agrees to return land to 1967 bordersWounded the psyche of Egypt and others

PLO = Palestine Liberation Organization
Headed by Yasser Arafat and the Arab League in 1964 to represent Palestine groups

Yasser Arafat
Head of the PLODemanded Palestine land returned to original state

Camp David Accords
1978: Carter host this between Sadat of Egypt and Begin of Israel.

2 results:-Arab nation would recognize Israel-Israel willing to return Sinai Peninsula land

Occupied Territories
West Bank and Gaza Strip-land Palestines live on but conquered by Israel in 1967Israel controls it-check points, economic independencePoor economy, low pay jobs, lots of poverty

Intifada
Means “shaking off” – A violent uprising by the people who live in the Occupied Territory of Palestine. First one happened in 1987

Hamas
Militant Palestinian group started after 1st Intifada

How has the map of Israel changed from 1948 to today?
Israel gained more and more of a homeland, while Palestinians are left to the West Bank and Gaza Strip

What 3 religions are connected with Israel?
Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Countries and bodies of water border Israel?
Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea

Which river marks much of the border between Israel/Palestine and Jordan?
The Jordan River

3 occupied territories self-governed by the Palestinians
West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights

Oslo Accords
1993.-Israel and Palestine peace agreements-5 year plan for full autonomy

Five Problems in Israeli/Palestinian Conflict
1) Refugees (4 1/2 million registered with UN)2) Jerusalem (who gets it)3) Settlements (1/2 million Israelis living in Palestine)4) Borders (need to define)5) Resources (farm, water.)

1947 UN divides Palestine
55% Jewish.45% Arab.–> Jerusalem an international city

What are Israel’s claims to the land?
Jews have had a relationship with this territory for 37 centuries. They need a homeland, as there is nowhere else that speaks Hebrew.

What are the Palestinian’s claim to the land?
Palestinians descend from the Canaanites, who were the first owners of the territory.

The Jews then took the territory from the Canaanites, until the Romans took the Jews. If what the Jews are seeking is compensation, they should go to the Romans.

What is the relationship of Abraham to the Jews and Palestinians?
Jews: Abraham made a covenant with God that founded Judaism and claimed Israel. God promised that Abrahams followers, the Jews, would get Israel.

Palestinians: They consider Abraham as their ancestor. Scholars say the children of Ishmael (Abraham’s son;the Arabs) will inherit Israel, the holy land

Jerusalem
A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.

Zionism
Jew’s liberation movement where they are trying to seek a safe homeland away from anti-Semitism

British Mandate in Palestine
British gave Jews anything west of the Jordan river, Palestinians got anything east of it.

How did Arabs react after the State of Israel was declared?
Armies from Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Egypt invaded and attacked.

Right of Return–Palestinians
They believe that they have the right to return to the land that was taken from them when they were forced to become refugees.

U.N. Partition of Palestine
Gave Jews 55% of land (make up 33%)Arabs got 45% of land (make up 66%)

Why did Palestinians reject the U.N. Partition Plan?
They felt that outsiders could not dictate who gets the land.

Unfair distribution of land compared to population.

Diaspora Jews
Jews that were forced from their land and holy temple.

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