Type: Controversial Essays
Sample donated: Madeline Beck
Last updated: September 18, 2019
JapaneseTechnology of Design, Manufacturing and Product development to increaseProductivity in Nepal INTRODUCTIONTechnologyof the product design for maintaining and improving productivity has become achallenge for the design companies to meet the optimized high degree ofaccuracy for the development of the product and processes. The supply anddemand of the right product in right time is important for the long term lifeof the manufacturing company. Views have been given by the Design and ProductionEngineer to increase the productivity.
However, there is still the questionremaining un-cleared about which methods are applicable to the design Companiesin order to uplift and equalize the supply and demand of quality products withlimited resources.For thedeveloped country, the use of modern technology and strategies are importantfor balanced growth of Company to compete in regional, national and globallevel. There is equal importance to the developing country like Nepal to usethe updated engineering strategies and technology to increase productivity.GDP, HDI and technique of increasing the productivity in developing countrieslike Nepal are affected by the strategies and techniques followed by themanufacturer of the developed countries like Japan. So, it is critical tounderstand which technical method is likely to be used.Technology-intensiveproducts, Top management as a catalyst, Self-organizing project teams,Overlapping development phases, Overlap between R&D and marketing forfaster development, increased flexibility, and information sharing, Multi-learning, Subtle control, Japanese teamwork,Techniques of lean design and Lean production, Product research driven bymarket, More time spent in planning, Focus on customer satisfaction, Reducedcycle times, Use of team approach, Use of prototypes, Decentralized Management,Target costs based on what market will bear, Everyone must struggle to meettarget cost, Harmony in the workplace is most important, Job performance haslittle impact on pay, Emphasis is on collective effort, process engineering,Results of total process efficiency, Tightly controlled manufacturing process,Implications of mass customization, Strong dislike of defective goods, Companyjob rotation plan, Faster product development, Costs without the benefits are the technique followed in Japan andthis techniques are still lagging in Nepal which might be the reason forcompanies turnover.Thisarticle is about how these techniques and strategies are used by differentmanufacturers of Japan to meet the desired targets of producers and consumer’ssatisfaction in Japan and the feasibility study of such technique andstrategies in Nepal. PROBLEMSTATEMENTDue to the lack of effective study in productdesign, and productivity, Nepal is facing problem in the manufacturing sectors.
Uncertainly in the estimation of time requirement to complete the project andthe efficient method to be adapted to develop the project is still confusing.The increasing volume of scrap materials during product development requiresthe need of the use of optimized technology suitable for the production. Thecurrent process has to be reviewed and modification is necessary which is onlypossible through the research of the use of proper technology in design andproduction sectors. Promoting the new strategies, methods and processes cancontribute to the uncertainly reduction in manufacturing, scrap materials,time, money, labour variety and overhead charges to increase qualitativeproductivity. So, it is necessary to phase outthe high uncertain manufacturing processes, machines and strategies, and toaccept the new technology of manufacturing and design process to increaseproductivity in Nepal. In order to implement theJapanese technologies, focused research on the use of proper method of Japaneseproduction processes to meet demand and production equality, Impact of theplanning of Japanese production processes and product design on productivity,Results of different Japanese policy of product design and manufacturingprocesses, and the recommendations of different Japanese technologies andstrategies for the uncertainly reduction in Nepalese production must be studiedmeticulously. Lack of integrated design processes in manufacturingplants has been formulated in research problem that is required to beaddressed. Based on this problem, following research question has to beaddressed before establishing any production company in Nepal.
a) What are the efficient designstrategies, manufacturing and production processes that the manufacturer ofdeveloped country is using?b) To what extent the demand hasbeen overcome by using the current technology available?c) What are the current Impact of adopted planningof product design and manufacturing on the productivity of Japanese company?d) What are the results of different policy ofproduct design on productivity?e) To what extent, recommendedeffective processes are feasible in developing country? LITERATUREREVIEWThisreview has been cited from various references of this proposal. The world knowsthat the Japanese manufacturers have achieved a great improvement in Automobilemarket around 1970s. Many of the world are surprised by the Toyota’s productivityrates that has exceed U.S. Manufacturers as long ago as the 1960s(1988,Michael A. Cusumano) and thedetailed study about the Japanese productivity, quality and process flexibilityhas been done for past thirty year. The findings were the performance ofJapanese firm in auto production depends not on the employment of Japaneseworkers but on Japanese innovations in technology and management and innovationon production management giving the reason behind them and their gradualevolution and improvement in productivity and inventory levels.Thepost-war Japanese competitive strategy related to the low wages rate, flexibleproduction and JIT techniques for cost minimization and quick delivery has beenknown (Mussel white, 1990) and also the adoption of foreign technologies andcontinuous improvements while maintaining quality consciousness has been done.
(Best, 1990). Japanesecompanies appear more adept at exploiting strategic windows-opportunitiescreated by new market segments, changes in technology, or new distributionchannels (JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & INDUSTRIAL MARKETING, VOL. 13 NO.
2 1998,pp. 132-154).The paperto analyze methods of measurement of labour productivity and introduction ofsuch method to real business to find out the optimized methods of measuringperformance to increase productivity was given by Yana Myronenko. Methods toincrease productivity like Quality improvement programs, lean productionmethods, Supply chain management, Automation and information technology andprofessional development of the workforce are proposed by the previouslyresearch thesis. Capital deepening, skills development and the new systemimplementation are the governing factors to increase labour productivity (2012,Myronenko).
“Theimpact of technological change on work and wages” has been stated by ClairBrown and Ben Cambell. This study was concerned about how the technologicalchanges has affected work at the establishment or plant level as well as whatis still controversial and what is still unknown.Many companies in the world and elsewhere, seeking ways todevelop products more quickly and efficiently or to improve existing products,are recasting their relationships with suppliers—very often modeling theirefforts on approaches adopted by world-class Japanese manufacturers, such asToyota and Nissan. The favoured Japanese practices include using fewersuppliers and forging longer-term relationships with them, prodding suppliersto improve continually, and involving suppliers in the design and developmentof products. But many managers who adopt Japanese-style supplier-managementpractices have an incomplete understanding of them and, as a result, may beunable to gain all the benefits Japanese manufacturers enjoy .( Kamath &Liker) Thecurrent technology used in developing country lacks the effective study.
Thestudy done in past was only based upon the study of the developed country andthe others have adopted the similarpractices due to which, the difference in practices and ineffective transformativeprocedure, many of the company don’t have confidence on the new technology. So,research in this sector is important to recommend the exact technique to beimplemented by the least developed country. The results will be fruitful toJapan, Nepal and the world in case of increasing productivity with costminimization and identification of uncertainly reduction for increasingproductivity and product design. METHODOLOGYAfter theproblem formulation, literature review can be carried out in the initial stageand also throughout the research period. Literatures related to the processplanning, design processes, different variables for design and manufacture,manufacturing complexity and required technology for optimum production to meetdemand side requirement and with low manufacturing cost canl be carried outconcerning quality.Fieldvisit to the different a) product developing sites, b) Industrial manufacturingsites, and c) automobile production company, with numbers of questionnaireabout how they are succeeding in meeting the timely delivery of qualitativeproduct to the consumer and parallel employee satisfaction can be carried out.To what extent the consumers are satisfied with their products (their CustomerSatisfaction Index, CSI), how much optimum design processes, strategies andtechnology that the company have adopted meets their target in sales andcurrent market competition, and hence how much efficient is the adoptedtechnology and what is the rejection percentage of the designed products.
Thecollected data then can be compiled to find out the actual status of thestrategies and technology used. The available resources need to be collectedfrom the above mentioned sites of Japan to know the actual status of country.The data then can be compiled and interpreted with the support of related andspecialized person of the country. Thenafter, the findings through this research will be useful to find out theequation of technology transformation between developed and developingcountries and the expected outcomes stated in later topic, and to suggest andrecommend the effective strategies and techniques to increase the qualityproduction and demand side management. EXPECTEDOUTCOMESThe mainfocus of this research is to compare the different adopted Japanese technologyfor the product design, manufacturing and product development in the newproduct developing sites, manufacturing industries and automobile sites ofJapan for different quality products and finding out the equation of technologytransformation for the feasibility of such an adopted process that can becarried out in developing countries. Thus, the planning of the adoption ofJapanese technology to be carried out in Nepal needs to be studied.
Technologytransformation, Feasibility of adopted technology in developing country, Demandand production equality with increase in productivity, Reduction in processtime, uncertainly reduction (i.e. materials, manpower variety and cost),increase in CSI (Customer Satisfaction Index), and the recommendation forefficient technologies in design, manufacturing and production process are theexpected outcomes that will help to establish new production company in Nepal,with the researched equations of technology transformation. REFERENCES Best, M.
H. (1990), New Competition, HarvardUniversity Press, Cambridge, MA. Cusumano, M.A.
(1994). “The limits of ‘lean'”, SloanManagement Review, Summer, pp. 27-32. Dore, R. (1989), “Technology in a world of nationalfrontiers”, World Development, Vol. 17 No. 11, pp.
1665-75. Drucker, P.F.(1985), Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Harper & Row, New York, NY. Dumaine, B. (1991). “Closing the innovation gap”,Fortune, December 2, pp. 56-60.
Giget, M. (1988), “The Bonsai trees of Japaneseindustry”, Futures, April 20, pp. 147-54.Imai, K.-i. (1992), “The Japanese pattern ofinnovation and its evolution”, in Rosenberg, N.
, Landau, R. and Mowery, D.C.(Eds), Technology and the Wealth of Nations, Stanford University Press,Stanford, CA.Imai, K.
, Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1985),”Managing the new product development process: how Japanese companies learn andunlearn”, in Clark, K.B., Hayes, R.
H. and Lorenz, C. (Eds), The UneasyAlliance, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA.Imai, M. (1988), Kaizen: The Key to Japan’sCompetitive Success, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.Kilburn, D.
(1986),”How Japanese products succeed in Japan”, Journal of the American Chamber ofCommerce in Japan, Vol. 26 No. 6, June, pp. 24-7.
J.E. Harbour, “Comparison and Analysis of AutomotiveManufacturing Productivity in the Japanese and North American AutomotiveIndustry for the Manufacture of Subcompact and Compact Cars” (Berkley, MI:Harbour and Associates, 1981) INTERNETRESOURCES http://meche.mit.edu/research/designhttp://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/manufacturing-innovation-lessons-from-the-japanese-auto-industry/http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:551581/fulltext01.pdfhttp://www.irle-demo.berkeley.edu/worktech/worktech.pdfhttp://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Int-Jun/Japanese-Manufacturing-Techniques.htmlhttps://hbr.org/1971/03/what-we-can-learn-from-japanese-managementhttp://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/research/dstools/jit-just-in-time-manufacturing/https://www.manufacturing.net/news/2007/04/monozukuri-japanese-manufacturing-philosophy-will-be-subject-us-japan-seminarhttp://www.scmfocus.com/scmhistory/2017/03/standard-analysis-japanese-manufacturing-incomplete/ Submitted by: Mukunda Khanal Thapathali Campus, Nepal Email: [email protected] Phone number: +977- 9843882461