Keystone Exams Literature Terms

Topic: EntertainmentGames
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Last updated: May 6, 2019
Affix
One or more letters occurring as a bound form attached to the beginning, end, or base of a word and serving to produce a derivative word of an inflectional form. (ex. a prefix or suffix)

Allegory
A form of extended metaphor in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning may have moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas such as charity, greed, or envy.l

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Allusion
a reference to another work of literature, person, or event

Analysis
The process or result of identifying the parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole and their relationship to one another

Argument/Position
The position or claim the author establishes. Arguments should be supported with valid evidence and reasoning and balanced by the inclusion of counterarguments that illustrated opposing viewpoints.

Author’s Purpose
the author’s intent either to inform/teach, to entertain, or to persuade/convince the audience

Bias
The subtle presence of a positive or negative approach toward a topic

Characterization
the way an author presents a character and reveals character traits – by – what a character says – what a character thinks – what a character does – how a character responds to other characters

Connotation
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests

Cultural Significance
The generally accepted importance of a work representing a given culture

Defense of a Claim
Support provided to mark an assertion as reasonable

Dialect
a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographical region

Diction
the author’s choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning

Explicit
clearly and openly stated in the actual text

Exposition
A narrative device; The introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the story.

Generalization
A conclusion drawn from specific information that is used to make a broad statement about a topic or person

Imagery
a word or group of words in a literary work which appeal to one or more of the senses: sight, taste, touch, hearing, and smell

Implicit
To say or write something that suggests and implies but never says it directly or clearly.

Inference
A judgement based on reasoning rather than on a direct or explicit statement. A conclusion based on facts or circumstances; understanding gained by “reading between he lines”

Interpret
To give reasons through an explanation to convey and represent the meaning or understanding of text

Literary Movement
A trend or pattern of shared beliefs or practices that mark an approach to literature (ex Realism, Naturalism, Romanticism.)

Monologue
an extended speech given by one speaker, either to others or as if alone

Mood
The prevailing emotions or atmosphere of a work derived from literary devices such as dialogue and literary elements such as setting.

The mood of a work is not always what might be expected based on its subject matter

Motif
A recurring theme, subject or idea in literary work

Narrative
a story or account of events, experiences, or the like, whether true or fictitious, expressed orally or in text

Opinion
A personal view, attitude, or appraisal

Point of View
the position of the narrator in relation to the story, as indicated by the narrator’s outlook from which the events are depicted (ex 1st, 2nd, 3rd person) and by the attitude toward the characters.It may also make use of the effects or regular rhythm on the ear and may make a strong appeal to the senses through the use of imagery

Prefix
a group of letters placed at the beginning of a word to alter its meaning

Satire
a literary work that ridicules or examines human vice or weakness.

Soliloquy
A dramatic speech, revealing inner thoughts and feelings, spoken aloud by character alone on stage

Style
The author’s choices regarding language, sentence structure, voice, and tone in order to communicate with the reader

Suffix
a group of letters placed at the end of a word to change its meaning or change it into a different kind of word, from an adj. to an adv, etc

Theme
A topic of discussion or work, a major idea broad enough to cover the entire scope of a literary work.

A theme may be stated or implied. Clues to the theme may be found in the prominent and/or reoccurring ideas in a work

Tone
the writer’s attitude toward the subject of a story, toward a character, toward the audience (the readers), subject or work itself (ex serious, humorous)

Universal Character
A character that symbolically embodies well-known meanings and basic human experiences, regardless of when or where he/she lives. (ex hero, villain, intellectual, dreamer)

Universal Significance
The generally accepted importance or value of work to represent human experience regardless of culture or time period.

Voice
The fluency, rhythm, and liveliness in a text that makes it unique to the author

Name Calling
an attack on a person instead of an issue

Propaganda
Information aimed at positively or negatively influencing the opinions or behaviors o large numbers of people

bandwagon
tries to persuade the reader to do, think, or buy something because it is popular or “everyone” is doing it

Red Herring
When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue.

Emotional Appeal
tries to persuade the reader by using words that appeal to the reader’s emotions instead of to logic or reason

Testimonial
attempts to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea

Repetition
attempts to persuade the reader by repeating a word or phrase, or rewording the same idea over and over again

Sweeping Generalization
makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited information (stereotyping)

Circular Argument
states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument

Appeal to numbers, facts or statistics
attempts to persuade the reader by showing how many people think something is true

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