Knowledge of nucleic acid structure contribute to the development of antiviral vaccines or helps a lot because it help us to create genetic vaccines which are far more advanced and better than former vaccines In contrast to vaccines that employ recombinant bacteria or viruses, genetic vaccines consist only of DNA (as plasmids) or RNA (as mRNA), which is taken up by cells and translated into protein.
The DNA vaccines are injected to host cell where it is used to code proteins.These proteins are recognized as foreign particles and immune response is triggered. These vaccines are self replicating so its one of the advantage over other vaccines, which makes them inexpensive and more practical for treating different diseases.
For induction purposes DNA vaccines can use any pathway either MHC-I OR MHC-II which make it better to improve immune responses. We can create different DNA vaccines because we know about DNA, its structure, how it works. All this help us a lot to create this third generation vaccines what we call to DNA vaccines. A vaccine needs to be safe, cheaper, genetically stable or which will not have high tendencies to mutate and most important highly immunogenic and Dna vaccines give us all these characteristics better than other type of vaccines(2nd gen. And 1st gen.). In simple words it is more effective to fight diseases or they have high efficacy.
It all started with knowing about nucleic acids and now we came so far that we can bring changes in those so that it can be used for the betterment of the society.