Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Ira Kennedy
Last updated: September 7, 2019
LA4-BBlack Holes Whena star dies, it can do many different things. For instance, it can develop to ared giant and shrink into a white dwarf, it can develop into a neutron star, orat times it can even collapse upon to form what is known as a black hole.
Thismostly depends on the star’s density. When big stars, those three times the sun’s mass die, they eitherconsume all of their extra mass or collapse upon themselves to form blackholes. Since it is one of the most inexplicable objects in the earth, blackholes are one of the main topics of interest for the astrophysics and theastronomers. This essay will attempt to shed some light on the mysteriousformations of black holes and will inform the reader about the characteristicsand the layers surrounding them.
Blackholes form through the disintegration of discrete stars which are very smallbut compressed. They burn down the gas and dust from the galaxy surroundingthem and increase in mass. They also deform the space close to them and canfrequently pull the nearby substances into them.
Due to the relationship between gravity andmass, they have a strong gravitational pull. The gravity engulfs even thenuclear forces and, the gravitational pulls become so powerful such thatnothing can get away from it. This collapse also causes a supernova or elsea blasting star that flares part of the stars into space. There is nothing thatcan get away from them under classical astronomy not even light because of thegravitational force of the black hole (Calhau, 303).
Black holes usually consist of two layerswhich are the event horizon and the singularity. The black hole’s border iswhat is known as the event horizon because anything that happens within isindefinitely concealed to anyone viewing from the outside (Smith et al., 3). When atiny particle cut across the event horizon, it cannot leave since gravity isconstant around the event horizon. On the other hand, the singularity is thepart of the black hole where all the masses are compressed almost to zerocapacity. As a consequence, the singularity has nearly infinite mass andproduces a massive gravitational pull (Smith et al.
, 3). Ablack hole has three characteristics which are mass, spin, and the electricalcharge. The mass usually determines its size. Their electrical charge is, however, zero because of the way they formthus making them even smaller. The structure of the substance in a black holeis not yet known since it is hidden from the outer space and because thesubstance would supposedly continue to disintegrate until its radius is zero (Calhau, 303).
Conclusion Blackholes are full of mystery and wonders. They are also to some extentinteresting with their characteristic. Although they are accepted as beingreal, their actual subsistence has not yet been proven. Scientifically, they havebeen proven to have a massive effect on light, time and even space. Ifblack holes are proven to exist beyond theoretical physics, then they wouldpossibly be a very common anomaly in this earth. White DwarfsEverystar you see shinning in the sky eventually dies and for those stars that aremedium to small in size will eventually die and become a white dwarf.
Thisincludes our star, The Sun. How do stars become white dwarfs you ask? Well starseventually come to the end of their burning phase when they burn up all thehydrogen and run out of nuclear fuel for reactions, causing the star to swellup into a red giant. These red giants then shed their outer layer creating a planetarynebula, after this process only the extremely hot core of the star remains, thiscore is the white dwarf, a star where no fusion occurs. They are called whitedwarfs for the scientific reason of that these stars are white in the sky and happento be quite small or dwarfs as you might say, these two facts give scientistsreasoning to call it a white dwarf. WhiteDwarfs relative size is just a bit bigger than earth, yet it is much denser,about 200,000 times denser (NASA, 2006).
They are so densebecause they collapsed so much in the initial dying phase that their electronssmashed together causing the “degenerate matter” phenomena (Redd, 2013). Although thesestars are rather small, since they are so dense, this causes them to have agreat deal of mas. After much research by Chandrasekhar in the 1930’s he made afundamental discovery that white dwarves have a maximum mass of 1.4MSunor about 2.78×1030 kg (Camenzind, 2007). Despite being inthe death cycle of a star, white dwarfs are extremely hot, with temperaturesreaching approximately 100,000 degrees Celsius and will stay this way forbillions and billions of years.