Leadership Final Study Cards

Topic: BusinessTime Management
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Last updated: May 22, 2019
What are the eras of leadership?

  • Tribal
  • Pre-Classical
  • Classical
  • Progressive
  • Post-Progressive

List the leadership theories in order according to dates.

  • Great Man Theory (1776-1900s)
  • Trait Theory (1907-1948)
  • Behavioral Theory (1950s-1960s)
  • Situational Theory (1950s-1980s)
  • Process Theory (1970s-present)

Leadership in the 1920s was defined as:
the ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induce obedience, respect, loyalty, and cooperation
Leadership in the 1930s was defined as:
a process in which the activities of many are organized to move in a specific direction by one.
Leadership in the 1940s was defined as:
the result of an ability to persuade or direct men, apart from the prestige or power that comes from office or external circumstance.
Leadership in the 1950s was defined as:
what leaders do in groups; the leader’s authority is spontaneously accorded him by his fellow group members.

Leadership in the 1960s was defined as:
acts by a person which influence other persons in a shared direction.
Leadership in the 1970s was defined in terms of:
discretionary influence, which refers to those leader behaviors under control of the leader which he may vary from individual to individual.
Leadership in the 1980s was defined as:;
regardless of the complexities involved in the study of leadership, its meaning is relatively simple. Leadership means to inspire others to undertake some form of purposeful action as determined by the leader.
Leadership in the 1990s was defined as:;
an influence relationship between leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes.
What are the tenets for the Great Man theory?

  • leaders are born
  • based on hereditary traits

According to the Great Man Theory, great leaders were:

  • royalty
  • wealthy
  • political leaders

Tradition School of Thought of leaders according to the Great Man Theory focuses on:;
Darwinistic ideals of intermarriage of the fittest to continue lineage of great leaders.
Modern School of Thought on leaders according to the Great Man Theory believed:

  • great leaders emerge during a great need
  • great leaders are heroic

What are some of the traits considered in the Trait Theory?

  • gender
  • height
  • physical energy and appearance
  • authoritarianism
  • intelligence
  • need for achievement
  • need for power

Traditional School of Thought on leaders according to the Trait Theory was that:

  • Some traits are more necessary for effective leadership
  • Leaders differ from nonleaders in regard to traits

Traits that continue to appear through research that are tied to effective leadership include:

  • intelligence
  • self confidence
  • determination;
  • integrity
  • sociability

What is McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory?
It attempts to explain and predict behavior and performance based on a person’s need for achievement, power, and affiliation.
Define the 3 characteristics/traits of McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory.

  • Achievement: 
    • wish to take responsibility for finding solutions to problems
    • master complex tasks
    • set goals
    • get feedback on level of success 
  • Affiliation:
    • desire to belong
    • an enjoyment of teamwork
    • a concern about interpersonal relationships
    • a need to reduce uncertainty
  • Power:
    • drive to control and influence others
    • a need to win arguments
    • a need to persuade and prevail

According to the Leadership Motive Profile (LMP) Theory, effective leaders have

  • a high need for power
  • a moderate need for achievement
  • a low need for affiliation

What is emotional intelligence?
The ability to work well with people.
What are the 4 components of the Emotional Quotient outlined by Goleman? Describe them.

  1. Self-awareness: relates to being conscious about your emotions and how they affect your personal and professional life
  2. Social awareness: relates to the ability to understand others
  3. Self-management: relates to the ability to control disruptive emotions
  4. Relationship management: relates to the ability to work well with others

What is Strengths-Based Leadership?

  • a concept derived from Positive Psychology
  • focused on enhancing the positive aspects of life and not just trying to address the negative ones
  • capitalizes on strengths

What is the Strengths-Based School of Thought?

  • All traits can be positive and useful in effective leadership.
  • Capitalize on the strengths the person has and match the person to appropriate situation to use those traits.
  • Focus on traits a person has and not traits the person does not

What are the tenets of the Behavioral Theory?

  • leadership behaviors and not predisposed traits are associated with leadership
  • leadership can be learned

What is the Traditional School of Thought for the Behavioral Theory?

  • Some behaviors/skills are more necessary for effective leadership
  • Leaders differ from nonleaders in regard to behavior/skills
  • Behaviors/skills that continue to appear through research are tied to effective leadership include:
    • technical skills
    • human skills
    • conceptual skills

What are the tenets of Situational Theory?

  • Different situations determine different kinds of leadership
  • An effective leader adapts his/her style to the demands of different situations
  • Situational Leadership Model has 2 dimensions:
    • Task/Directive
    • Relationship/Supportive

Describe the “Directing” component of the Situational Leadership Model.

  • High directive/low supportive
  • define the roles of members and volunteers you supervised
  • tell them what tasks to do and how, when, and where to do them
  • initiate problem-solving and decision-making
  • closely supervise activities

Describe the “Coaching” component of the Situational Leadership Model.

  • High directive/high supportive
  • provide a great deal of direction and lead with your own ideas
  • listen to the members and volunteers you supervise and consider their feelings, ideas, and suggestions
  • two-way communication with increased support, but still control decision-making

Describe the “Supporting” component of the Situational Leadership Model.

  • Low directive/high supportive
  • focus of day-to-day decision-making and problem solving shifts from leader to direct report
  • provide recognition
  • actively listen and facilitate problem solving and decision-making
  • considered a “cheerleader”

Describe the “Delegating” component of the Situational Leadership Model.

  • Low directive/low supportive
  • provide minimal direction and support
  • decision-making is delegated totally to the members and volunteers
  • members and volunteers direct their own behavior and decide how tasks should be accomplished

What are the steps to determining which component of the Situational Leadership Model to apply?

  1. Determine the nature of the situation.
  2. Determine the competency level of the employees (subordinates).
  3. Select a style that matches the need

The Process Theory is also referred to as:
the Reciprocal Theory
How is leadership defined according to the Process Theory?
Leadership is a process that incorporates inclusive, meaningful engagement of both the leader and the followers.
What is the Relational Leadership Model?
a reciprocal leadership approach in that it “emphasizes the mutual goals and motivations of both followers and the leaders”
What are the 5 principles incorporated in the Relational Leadership Model? Describe them.

  • Inclusive: of people and diverse points-of-view; a sense of “we”
  • Purpose: the ability to make a commitment and established a shared vision as a group
  • Empowering: of others through personal interactions and creating an empowering environment
  • Ethical: makes moral decisions
  • Process-Oriented: the way the group establishes itself, goes about being a group, and how it accomplishes its purpose; intentional process; reflection

What are the 3 dimensions of the 5 principles of the Relational Leadership Model? Describe them.

  • Knowing: having knowledge and understanding of the principle
  • Being: having attitudes and beliefs related to the principle
  • Doing: acting in accordance with the principle

What is social change?
The significant alteration of social structure and cultural patterns over time.
What are ways that social change can occur?

  • intentional through social movements and advocacy
  • reactionary like having to deal with environmental changes/disasters
  • summation of many activities that appear unrelated that causes change to occur over time in which humans adapt

What is the purpose of the Social Change Model?
to facilitate positive change in the community
What are the foundational elements of the Social Change Model?

  • inclusivity
  • leadership as a process rather than a position
  • promotes the values of equity, social justice, self-knowledge, personal empowerment, citizenship and service

What are the 3 components of the “Individual” branch of the Social Change Model? Describe them.

  • Conscious of Self: being aware of the values, emotions, attitudes, and beliefs that motivate one to take action, including how one understands others
  • Congruence: thinking, feeling, and behaving with consistency, genuineness, authenticity and honesty toward others
  • Commitment: links them to their values, makes others respect them, and motivates them to achieve their goals

What are the 3 components of the “Group” branch of the Social Change Model? Describe them.

  • Collaboration: primary means of empowering others and self through trust
  • Common Purpose: work with shared aims and values
  • Controversy with Civility: recognizes that differences in viewpoints are inevitable and valuable, and that such differences must be aired openly but with civility

What is the component of the “Community” branch of the Social Change Model? Describe it.

  • Citizenship: the process whereby the self is responsibly connected to the environment and community

What does “Tao” mean?
“how things happen”
What is the Tao of Leadership?
explains how leadership happens without being prescriptive in behavior
What is a mission statement?
A statement of purpose/core values
What is the mission statement of Blue Chip?
“Build leaders who make a difference.”
What is strength?
the ability to provide consistent, near perfect performance in a specific given activity
What is an intentional toxic leader?
deliberately injure others or enhance themselves at others’ expense
What is an unintentional toxic leader?
engage in careless and reckless actions, including incompetence, nonetheless causing negative effects

What is incompetence in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

lack of the required skill, capability, and aptitude that are required to complete the function
What is malfunctioning in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?
focused on their own insecurities and therefore unable to focus on the mission, organization, or followers

What is maladjusted in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

is insecure about their own accomplishments, often with good reason, having avoided the personal risk, discipline, and hard work needed to succeed in earlier circumstances

What is a sense of inadequacy in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

has a deep-seated sense of inadequacy that may be based on either real or perceived “chinks in the armor”

What is malcontent in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

is an extremely bitter leader, an unhappy person, a disgruntled soul who is angry about past failures and determined to make the world pay

What is irresponsible in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

refuses to answer to their actions

What is amoral in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

is often also irresponsible and sees him/herself as outside the particular moral code

What is cowardice in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

lacks resolve, determination, and steadfastness in times when tough decisions must be made; unable or unwilling to make the tough decisions

What is insatiable ambition in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

has an unquenchable desire for power, prestige, money, success, and glory and will do whatever it takes to satisfy that desire at any cost

What is egotism in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

has an exaggerated sense of selfworth; constant focus on self; and inability to distiguish between the real self and imagined self

What is arrogance in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

is overly certain of his/her own superiority to all others; convinced that they can do all things a cut above all others

What are selfish values in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

is purely self-centered and self-promoting
What are avarice and greed in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?
has an inordinately high value on the accumulation of wealth and financial gain

What is lack of integrity in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

lacks integrity and honesty resulting in a lack of trust on the part of followers

What is deception in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

attempts to deceive others about their character flaws and self-serving motives

What is malevolent in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

has a persistent, severe hatred for others in order to counter their own insecurities; they wish for the misfortune of others and then revel in it

What is malicious in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

inflicts harm on others they feel such malice toward, often whether there is personal gain in it for them or not

What is malfeasance in terms of the characteristic of a toxic leader?

convinced that rules and laws do not apply to them
What are the 3 “internal” reasons people stay with toxic leaders? Describe them.

  • internal-psychological: need for authority figures to replace our parents and caretakers
  • internal-pragmatic: fills a practical need (pays the bills)
  • internal-existential: fills a need of belonging

What are the 3 “external” reasons people stay with a toxic leader? Describe them.

  • external-uncertain, disorderly world: fills a need for security and certainty
  • external-psychosocial: need to meet society’s standards of achievement and grow self-esteem
  • external-unfinished and unfinishable world: need to follow individuals who meet society’s challenges

What are the characteristics of the absentee leader?

  • detached from the organization and people he/she is leading
  • only involved in the decision-making, future planning, and program executing
  • seems to be mindless because their mind is only on themselves and obtaining others’ approval

What are the characteristics of the incompetent leader?

  • lacks the will to sustain effective action within the organization
  • lack of skill; careless; dense; distracted; slothful; sloppy
  • unable to effectively act and react in times/situations of uncertainty and stress 
  • unable to successfully communicate ideas, educate subordinates, or delegate authority to competent supporters

What are the characteristics of the codepent leader?

  • will take personal responsibility for dependant’s substandard performance and make no attempt to correct it for fear of hurting their feelings
  • will take on more work/responsibility that is rightfully his/hers and then become angry with the amount of work that has been pushed on him/her
  • she/he is a peacemaker who would rather cover up problems than face them, in an effort to balance the group’s system

What are the characteristiscs of the passive-aggressive leader?

  • has an intense fear of failure
  • reluctant to deliver his/her best performance because it may not be up to standard and then result in failure
  • unwilling to perform results in procrastination/stubborness/forgetfulness and outbursts of anger if a task is pushed upon him/her

What are the characteristics of the busy-body leader?

  • energetic, restless, constantly in motion, full of unfocused vigor 
  • may give full focus on one project/topic and then jump to another for no apparent reason
  • yearns for the spotlight; must be the center of attention to further manipulate those around him/her

What are the characteristics of the paranoid leader?

  • completely insecure about themselves and their skills 
  • pathologically jealous of others
  • convinced that others are trying to chip away at them, their performance, leadership, and achievements
  • won’t tolerate any level of criticism because they view it as a personal attack
  • assumes there are hidden intentions behind every remark
  • handles any individual harshly who attempts to exert control

What are the characteristics of the rigid leader?

  • stiff; unyielding; unable/unwilling to adapt to new ideas, new information, or changing times
  • convinced he/she is the only one who’s right
  • hates to entertain other opinions
  • surrounds themselves with people who think the same way they do

What are the characteristics of the controller leader?

  • perfectionist who craves certainty and surety who makes decisions themselves
  • can’t/doesn’t delegate
  • will be initimately involved in every decision, big or small

What are the characteristics of the compulsive leader?

  • rigid; pursues perfection to an extreme; need for control of every aspect of their life
  • angry, resentful, rebellious on the inside
  • believes it wrong to express their true feelings
  • repressed anger can be expressed in sudden and violent outbursts

What are characteristics of the intemperate leader?

  • unable to abstain from overindulgences 
  • excesses are often morally questionable and can be distractions/disruptive if they become public

What are the characteristics of the enforcer leader?

  • subservient; second-in-command; follows the leader and implements their desires
  • wants approval from the boss and only cares about the boss’s approval

What are characteristics of the narcissistic leader?

  • self-absorbed; deeply ambitious
  • lacks self-esteem; feels inferior because they want more
  • unable to recognize that others are able to perform to his/her standard

What are the characteristics of the callous leader?

  • lacks empathy and concern for followers; no desire to hear what they have to say
  • tends to exceedingly harsh and inflexible
  • arrogant, patronizing, unpleasant, abrasive, selfish, hot-tempered
  • demands are unrealistic and delivered in an abusive manner
  • enjoys the reputation of being harsh/abusive and pleasure in knowing followers fear him/her

What are the characteristics of the street fighter leader?

  • egotistical, yet charming
  • maintains a competitive vision of winning at all costs
  • good to those who are loyal and can help him/her win
  • tends to build gangs of supporters
  • ultimately risks destroying the morale of the organization

What are characteristics of the corrupt leader?

  • motivated by power and greed
  • lie, cheat, steal in order to fulfill need of power/money
  • steps into unethical, immoral, and illegal realm; often deceitful

What are the characteristics of the insular leader?

  • separates themselves from the organization and followers;
  • disregards the health/welfare of those not in the organization

What are the characteristics of the bully leader?

  • bitter and intensely angry at the world
  • vehemently angry at others who outperform them
  • invalidates others to validate themselves
  • boast about contributions despite validity
  • hurting others is the main goal
  • prone to outbursts to make them seem powerful
  • secretly a coward; will back down when seriously challenged

What does it mean to empower someone?
to give power to someone thus resulting in a greater sense of confidence/self-esteem and ability to do a task
What are the characteristics of the evil leader?

  • brutality is physical
  • commit atrocities
  • use pain as an instrument of power

What are the 3 dimensions of motivation? Give 3 examples of each.

  • Extrinsic Rationale
    • tangible rewards
    • public recognition
    • competition with others
  • Relational Rationale
    • not wanting to let others down
    • individual recognition
    • acceptance by others
  • Intrinsic Rationale
    • learning something or being better at something
    • competition with self
    • leaving a legacy

What are the 5 love languages?

  1. Receiving Gifts
  2. Physical Touch
  3. Words of Affirmation
  4. Acts of Service
  5. Quality Time

What is empowerment?
the giving or delegation of power or authority; authorization
What is motivation?
desire to do; interest; drive; incentive; inducement
What is encouragement?
to inspire (someone) with courage or confidence (to do something)
What are values?
freely chosen personal beliefs
What are morals?
relating to right or wrong; commonly thought to influenced by religion or values
What are ethics?
social rules that govern and limit our conduct, especially the ultimate rules concerning right and wrong
What is the Social Learning Theory?;
people learn from others through observation (their action or inaction)
What are Kitchner’s 5 Ethical Principles? Describe them.

  • Respecting autonomy: not unrestricted freedom, providing leaders and members freedom of choice
  • Doing no harm: psychological and physical freedom from harm to others, refrain from harming others
  • Benefiting others: good for the whole, growth of the group, promote what is good for the whole organization and others outside of the organization
  • Being just: fairness and equality
  • Being faithful: premised on relationships and trust, keep promises

What are the 9 ethics of the Question-Answer Format?

  1. Utilitarian 
  2. Rule
  3. Contract
  4. Golden Rule
  5. Care-taker
  6. Publicity
  7. Idol
  8. Servant Leadership
  9. Stakeholder

What is moral luck?

  • being ethical but outcome is bad (unlucky)
  • being unethical but outcome is good (lucky)

*often rewarded for the outcomes, not the processes

What is followership?
the capacity or willingness to follow the leader
What are characteristics of an isolate follower?

  • don’t care about their leaders
  • aren’t aware
  • detached
  • do nothing

What are the characteristics of a bystander follower?

  • go along with the status quo (often when it is in their self interest)
  • disengage
  • are aware but do nothing

What are characteristics of a participant follower?

  • invest a little to make an impact
  • free agents
  • care somewhat

What are characteristics of activist followers?

  • eager
  • energetic
  • engaged
  • feel strongly one way or another about leaders
  • act accordingly

What are characteristics of diehard followers?

  • deeply devoted to their leaders or may want to oust their leaders
  • all encompassing commitment

What is the Leader Member Exchange Theory?

  • helps to explain the quality of relationship between leader and follower as it is assumed that leaders don’t interact with and distribute resources, time, energy, and attention to followers equally
  • there is an in-group of followers with the leader and an out-group of followers with the leader

Describe cohesion as attraction.

  • individual attraction: people in group are connected to each other;
  • group attraction: people in group have a favorable view of the group as whole

Describe cohesion as unity.

  • a sense of community
  • the group sticks together
  • solidarity
  • we-ness

Describe cohesion as teamwork.

  • members’ commit to the group goals
  • members’ belief in the capacity of the group

What is collective efficacy?
the belief of most, if not all, group members that the group can attain its goals
Describe the 4 components of Tuckman’s Model of Group Development.

  1. Forming
    • group comes together and gets to know each other
    • people are polite and let certain inappropriate behaviors slide
    • “Honeymoon” stage
  2. Storming
    • group hits rocky waters by trying to create processes, normalcy, etc.
    • Honeymoon stage comes to an end and conflict ensues
  3. Norming
    • group gets into routine
    • solves problems and issues that arose during Storming
  4. Performing
    • group goes beyond routine
    • gets into rhythm and synergy with each other

What are the 4 main assets in someone’s Personal Asset Map? Describe them.

  • Knowledge: expertise or information that you have aquired
  • Skill: a practical ability learned or acquired through training and/or practice
  • Resource: tangible item of value
  • Network: people you are connected to

What is culture?

The integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations; the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group.

What is ethnocentrism?
seeing the world from one cultural orientation and believing it to be the universal standard
What is socialization?
the process of learning norms, values, behavior, and culture of a group
What 2 ethnic groups does Juana Bordas focus on?
African American, Hispanic, Native American

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