How did auxiliary troops differ from regular troops?
– Auxiliary troops were drawn from less Romanized provinces, served for 25 years, and had citizenship until retirement. – Regular troops were first recruited from most Romanized provinces, served for 20 years, and had regular pay and bonuses upon retirement.
What were the qualifications for and benefits of being a legionnaire?
Strength and body of character. Had to be somewhat wealthy. Got paid while in retirement
What three main characteristics was a regular member of the legion expected to have?
Strict discipline, little food and water, and obey orders to death without retreat
How was soldiering related to regular Roman family life?
Soldiers sometimes led management of their farm similar to a military commander.
What did each soldier have to provide?
Providing own equipment of helmet, shield, sword, and iron-tipped javelin.
For what offenses could a legionnaire be punished? What was a legionnaire required to uphold?
If he lost his equipment in battle, stole or lied, or barged of hid deeds performed in battle
What three “wells” applied to how a legionnaire was treated?
Well-bathed, well-fed, well-trained
What other duties did a Do,an soldier have when we was not fighting?
Employed to build roads, camps, aqueducts, and fortifications
What was one weakness of the Roman military? Who did the Romans try to remedy this?
Water. They improved the design of fighting ships by adding boarding bridges, enabling them to board an enemy ship and fight hand-to-hand on its decks.
Many of them never made it across the bridges.
What quality does Latin possess? For what was the language particularly suited?
Clarity and order. Suited for not only literature, but also for structured phrasing and discipline
What form of precise literature did the Romans invent? Who was its greatest practitioner and how did ??he depict Rome in his literary pieces?
developed the form of literature we call satire. The writer Juvenal was its greatest practitioner.
He depicted Rome as decadent and depraved.
What great poetic work was used by all students throughout the empire? Who wrote it?
What was the goal of Roman law? Upon what was it based?
It helped the government rule different cultures and a variety of separate communities. It was based upon tolerance and rationality.
What was the first Roman law code? What philosophy heavily influenced it? What aspects did it ??possess, aspects which set the standard for the Roman Empire and the future?
Stoicism heavily influenced it. It possessed aspects of of clarity and universality that would set a standard fir the empire, it’s subjects, and the world of the future.
Who interpreted the laws? What did their interpretations become for succeeding cases and generations?
Magistrates, called praetors.
They became established legal precedents.
What group of specialists developed as law cases grew in number? What concept was incorporated into ??the legal system, even applying to non-citizens? Roman law thus became based on what? This in turn, was ?made flexible by what two aspects?
Lawyers began to specialize in interpretation, especially in cases arising among no citizens of Rome. It became based on precedent but made flexible by a sense of equity and influenced by the humanitarian of the Stoic philosophy.
What was the name of the famous law code written in the 6th century A.D?
Justinian Code. Parts: the code, the digest, the institutes, and the novels.