List and describe those at risk forCV problems and a brief explanation as to why they are at risk, includinginformation on modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors Modifiablerisk factors for cardiovascular disease include increased serum lipid,hypertension, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, stress, and diabetesmellitus.
Cigarette smoking is a most common factor that can damage the heart becauseit contains tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide which increases blood pressureand the tendency for blood to clot. A sedentary lifestyle also plays a majorrole in cardiovascular health because it increases chance of developing variouschronic diseases I listed above. Stress is also a major risk factor for cardiovasculardisease.
This is because stress can increase hormones like adrenaline andcortisol which can lead to chronic diseases such as hypertension andatherosclerosis. Furthermore, people tend to expose themselves to unhealthycoping strategies such as eating comfort foods like ice cream, cookies, greasyfoods, and drinking alcohol or even smoking cigarettes. Lastly, diabetesmellitus contributes to cardiovascular disease as well. One of the most serioushealth problems related to diabetes mellitus is atherosclerosis, which is thebuilding up of plaque in arteries – if a blockage forms it can lead to cardiovasculardisease. (Iggy Ch.33 page 632-633)Non-modifiablerisk factors are something that we cannot make any changes to, such as age,gender, family history, and race. As a person ages, everything in the body developsproblems.
This includes hardening of blood vessels as well as build up ofplaque, decrease in muscle mass, decrease in physical activity. All of thesecan contribute to cardiovascular disease. Also, men have a higher risk thanwomen, and people of African American ethnicity are at higher risk ofdeveloping cardiovascular disease. Lastly, family history also has manycontributory factors. Heart disease tend to run in families, so it is importantto assess the family history when taking care of a patient with cardiovascular disease.(Iggy Ch.
33 page 632-633) Lastsemester, I had an elderly patient with congestive heart failure with historyof type two diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and BMI of 35. Considering hisage and medical history, he was at high risks of developing cardiovascular disease. If I were to do patienteducation with him, I would teach him how to take care of his cardiovascular healthincluding daily physical exercise to maintain healthy weight, and balanced/healthymeals as well as how to manage his diabetes.