a term applied to the many forms in which human beings have given rhythmic expression to their most intense perceptions of the world, themselves, and the relation of the two. The purpose of poetry, according to Harmon and Holman, is to “please.”
the pattern of beats or stresses in spoken or written language
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the repetition of sounds at the ends of words
when rhyming words appear in the same line
the repetition of initial consonant sounds used by writers to give emphasis to words, imitate sounds, and to create musical effects.
the repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants in two or more stressed syllables. (ex. “weak and weary” from Poe’s “The Raven”)
the repetition in two or more words of final consonants in stressed syllables.
These consonants are preceded by different vowel sounds. (ex. add-read)
a repeated line or group of lines in poem or song
a pair of rhyming lines, usually of the same length and meter. A couplet generally expresses a single idea
the use of words that imitate sounds
rhythmical pattern of a poem which is determined by the number and types of stresses, or beats, in each line
marking the stressed and unstressed syllables
– a group of stressed and unstressed syllables. A line of poetry can be divided into feet by using vertical lines.
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter lines (used by Shakespeare)
verse written in five feet lines with each foot having one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
poetry not written in a regular rhythmical pattern, or meter. (dominant in modern poetry)
a group of lines in a poem considered as a unit
the set of associations that occur to people when they hear or read a word
a word’s dictionary meaning
– a play on words based on different meanings of words that sound alike
usage of words in an ordinary sense
writing or speech not meant to be taken literally
a figure of speech that uses incredible overstatement, or exaggeration for effect
a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken as though it were something else
metaphor in which the terms of comparison are not explicitly stated
explicitly stated metaphor
a metaphor that sustains the comparison for several lines
a type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics
a figure of speech in which like or as is used to make a comparison between two basically unlike subjects
anything that stands for or represents something else
a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
a songlike poem that tells a story, often one dealing with adventure or romance
long narrative poem about the deeds of gods or heroes
highly musical verse that expresses the observations and feelings of a single speaker
a poem that tells a story
the imaginary voice assumed by the writer of a poem.
The speaker is often not identified by name. The speaker is not the same person as the poet.
the use, more than once, of any element of language—a sound, a word, a phrase, a clause, or a sentence.
Repetition is used for musical effects and for emphasis.
“Philosophical investigation into the nature of beauty and the perception of beauty especially in the arts; the theory of art or artistic taste.”””
“A story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning. In written narrative _____ involves a continuous parallel between two (or more) levels of meaning in a story so that its persons and events correspond to their equivalents in a system of ideas or a chain of events external to the tale.”””
An indirect or passing reference to some event person place or artistic work the nature and relevance of which is not explained by the writer but relies on the reader’s familiarity with what is thus mentioned.
-A statement which can contain two or more meanings.
For example when the oracle at Delphi told Croesus that if he waged war on Cyrus he would destroy a great empire Croesus thought the oracle meant his enemy’s empire. In fact the empire Croesus destro
-A resemblance of relations; an agreement or likeness between things in some circumstances or effects when the things are otherwise entirely different.
“-repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases clauses or sentences. “”We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France”
“-A very short tale told by a character in a literary work. In Chaucer’s “”Canterbury Tales”” “”The Miller’s Tale”” and “”The Carpenter’s Tale”” are examples.
the character, force, or collection of forces in fiction or drama that opposes the protagonist and gives rise to the conflict of the story
a protagonist who has the opposite of most of the traditional attributes of a hero. [A character who] may be bewildered ineffectual deluded or merely pathetic.
“A brief statement which expresses an observation on life usually intended as a wise observation. Benjamin Franklin’s “”Poor Richard’s Almanac”” contains numerous examples one of which is Drive thy business; let it not drive thee.”
A figure of speech wherein the speaker speaks directly to something nonhuman
a term used to describe universal symbols that evoke deep and sometimes unconscious responses in a reader.
In literature characters images and themes that symbolically embody universal meanings and basic human experiences
A device in which a character in a drama makes a short speech which is heard by the audience but not by other characters in the play
The omission of a conjunction from a list (‘chips beans peas vinegar salt pepper’)
a Greek word that implies rule or law and is used in literature as the source which regulates which selection of authors or works would be considered important pieces of literature.
“Meaning “”purgation”” _____ describes the release of the emotions of pity and fear by the audience at the end of a tragedy. In his Poetics Aristotle discusses the importance of ______. The audience faces the misfortunes of the protagonist which elicit pity and compassion. Simultaneously the audience also confronts the failure of the protagonist thus receiving a frightening reminder of human limitations and frailties.
A term from classical rhetoric that describes a situation in which you introduce subjects in the order A B and C and then talk about them in the order C B and A.
The decisive moment in a drama the ______ is the turning point of the play to which the rising action leads. This is the crucial part of the drama the part which determines the outcome of the conflict.
spoken or written communication that seeks to imitate informal speech
A literary work which is amusing and ends happily. Modern ______ tend to be funny while Shakespearean _____ simply end well.
A far-fetched simile or metaphor a literary _____occurs when the speaker compares two highly dissimilar things.
The emotional implications and associations that words may carry as distinguished from their denotative meanings
The basic dictionary meaning of a word as opposed to its connotative meaning
Deus Ex Machina
“An unrealistic or unexpected intervention to rescue the protagonists or resolve the conflict. The term means “”The god out of the machine”” and refers to stage machinery.”
An author’s choice of words. Since words have specific meanings and since one’s choice of words can affect feelings a writer’s choice of words can have great impact in a literary work.
“A work “”designed to impart information advice or some doctrine of morality or philosophy.”””
A brief quotation which appears at the beginning of a literary work.
A pithy sometimes satiric couplet or quatrain which was popular in classic Latin literature and in European and English literature of the Renaissance and the neo-Classical era.
In literature a word of phrase preceding or following a name which serves to describe the character. For example in the Iliad: Zeus-loved Achilles
“Critical interpretation of a text especially a biblical text; from the Greek ex- + egeisthai meaning “”to lead out.”
A type of comedy based on a humorous situation such as a bank robber who mistakenly wanders into a police station to hide. It is the situation here which provides the humor not the cleverness of plot or lines
strict observance of the established rules traditions and methods employed in the arts. _____ can also refer to the theory of art that relies heavily on the organization of forms in a work rather than on the content.
A story in which one or more other stories are told.
Examples include the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales and the play at the beginning of the Taming of the Shrew.
A literary _____ is a recognizable and established category of written work employing such common conventions as will prevent readers or audiences from mistaking it [with] another kind
characterized by gloom and mystery and the grotesque; gothic novels include Frankenstein
An inspirational saying or platitude.
a common theme in Greek tragedies and mythology whose stories often featured protagonists suffering from hubris and subsequently being punished by the gods for it.
A figure of speech in which an overstatement or exaggeration is used for deliberate effect
A specialized vocabulary used by a group of people; jargon or A style or manner of expression peculiar to a given people
the collection of images within a literary work. Used to evoke atmosphere mood tension. For example images of crowded steaming sidewalks flanking streets choked with lines of shimmering smoking cars suggests oppressive heat and all the psychological tensions that go with it.
In Media Res
in or into the middle of a sequence of events as in a literary narrative
assuming from the text what the author intended to mean
A passage included in an author’s work without his/her consent
_____is thus a way of accounting for the role of literary and extra-literary materials without recourse to traditional notions of authorship. A literary work then is not simply the product of a single author but of its relationship to other texts and to the strucutures of language itself.
reversal of the normal order of words for dramatic effect
A device that depends on the existence of at least two separate and contrasting levels of meaning embedded in one message.
Verbal irony is sarcasm when the speaker says something other than what they really mean. In dramatic irony the audience is more aware than the characters in a work. Situational irony occurs when the opposite of what is expected happens. This type of irony often emphasizes that people are caught in forces beyond their comprehension and control.
” a literary technique where the disbelief of the reader and writer produces a momentary shift in the real world wherein an element of the surreal enters and leaves with ease.”””
“is an incorrect usage of a word usually with comic effect. “”He is the very pineapple of politeness.”””
a type of figurative language in which a statement is made that says that one thing is something else but literally it is not.
In connecting one object event or place to another a _____ can uncover new and intriguing qualities of the original thing that we may not normally notice or even consider important. _____ language is used in order to realize a new and different meaning.
A figure of speech in which a word represents something else which it suggests. For example in a herd of fifty cows the herd might be referred to as fifty head of cattle
a style of art in which objects are stripped down to their elemental geometric form and presented in an impersonal manner. In literature _____ use short descriptions and simple sentences.
thoughts of a single person directed outward.
A recurrent image word phrase represented object or action that tends to unify the literary work or that may be elaborated into a more general theme
The term naturalism describes a type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings. Unlike realism which focuses on literary technique naturalism implies a philosophical position
a villain who has a particular interest in defeating a hero or group of heroes and who is often of particular interest to the hero(es) in return.
A combination of contradictory terms like compassionate conservative.
the repetition of words phrases sentences that have the same grammatical structure or that restate a similar idea. Restatement is repetition of an entire idea in different words. Structuralism Parallelism is the repetition of a word or entire sentence pattern.
Antithesis is connecting ideas that are opposite rather than similar.
a brief and often simple narrative that illustrates a moral or religious lesson. Some of the best-known are in the Bible where Jesus uses them to teach his disciples.
The attribution of human emotions or characteristics to inanimate objects or to nature; for example angry clouds; a cruel wind.
a literary form in which the style of an author or particular work is mocked in its style for the sake of comic effect
Of relating to or being a literary or other artistic work that portrays or evokes rural life usually in an idealized way.
In literature the is the narrator or the storyteller of a literary work created by the author.
As Literature: An Introduction to Fiction Poetry and Drama puts it the persona is not the author but the author’s creation–the voice “through which the author speaks.”
"A figure of speech where animals ideas or inorganic objects are given human characteristics. One example of this is James Stephens’s poem ""The Wind"" in which wind preforms several actions. In the poem Stephens writes “The wind stood up and gave a shout. He whistled on his two fingers.”"
Point of View
"a way the events of a story are conveyed to the reader it is the “vantage point” from which the narrative is passed from author to the reader. In the omniscient point of view the person telling the story or narrator knows everything that's going on in the story.
In the first- person point of view the narrator is a character in the story. Using the pronoun ""I"" the anrrator tells us his or her own experiences but cannot reveal with certainty any other character's private thoughts. In the limited third-person point of view the narrator is outside the story- like an omniscient narrator- but tells the story from the vantage point of one character."
A controversial argument especially one refuting or attacking a specific opinion or doctrine.
the central character of a literary work
“Broadly defined as “”the faithful representation of reality”” or “”verisimilitude”” _____is a literary technique practiced by many schools of writing. Although strictly speaking realism is a technique it also denotes a particular kind of subject matter especially the representation of middle-class life.”
The art of persuasive argument through writing or speech–the art of eloquence and charismatic language.
Roman a Clef
a novel in which actual persons and events are disguised as fictional characters
The mythos of literature concerned primarily with an idealized world.
A form of prose fiction practised by Scott Hawthorne William Morris etc. distinguishable from the novel.
______ which was a reaction to the classicism of the early 18th century favored feeling over reason and placed great emphasis on the subjective or personal experience of the individual. Nature was also a major theme.
A literary work which exposes and ridicules human vices or folly. Historically perceived as tending toward didacticism it is usually intended as a moral criticism directed against the injustice of social wrongs.
The analysis of a poem’s meter. This is usually done by marking the stressed and unstressed syllables in each line and then based on the pattern of the stresses dividing the line into feet.
the study of the meaning of language as opposed to its form
theories regarding symbolism and how people glean meaning from words sounds and pictures.
a fictional character that relies heavily on cultural types or stereotypes for its personality manner of speech and other characteristics. Stock characters are instantly recognizable to members of a given culture.
Stream of Consciousness
technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the _______ to reflect all the forces external and internal influencing the psychology of a character at a single moment.
the hidden meaning lying behind the overt.
A figure of speech in which a part of something stands for the whole or the whole for a part as wheels for automobile or society for high society.
The way in which linguistic elements (words and phrases) are arranged to form grammatical structure.
A dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener.
the writer’s attitude toward the material and/or readers. ____ may be playful formal intimate angry serious ironic outraged baffled tender serene depressed or combinations
(1) the abstract concept explored in a literary work; (2) frequently recurring ideas such as enjoy-life while-you-can; (3) repetition of a meaningful element in a work such as references to sight vision and blindness in Oedipus Rex.
A serious play in which the chief figures by some peculiarity of character pass through a series of misfortunes leading to a final devastating catastrophe.
(hamartia)-the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall)
The intentional use of a word or expression figuratively i.
e. used in a different sense from its original significance in order to give vividness or emphasis to an idea. Some important types of____ are: antonomasia irony metaphor metonymy and synecdoche.
a ____ is an imaginary and indefinitely remote place of ideal perfection especially in laws government and social conditions. A ______ is an imaginary place where people lead dehumanized and often fearful lives; an imaginary place or state where everything is as bad as it possibly can be: or a description of such a place.
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
a small illustrative sketch
in writing a metaphor drawn from the spoken encompassing the writer’s tone style and manner.
a figure of speech by which an affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite, usually with an effect of understatement: common examples are no mean feat and not averse to a drink.
This figure is not uncommon in all kinds of writing.