Literary Terms +Tone Adjectives

Topics: ArtSymbolism

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Last updated: April 26, 2019

Affable
Warm, friendly, pleasantly easy

Ambivalent
Demonstrating mixed feelings (ex. love and hate) toward a person or subject

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Bemused
Bewildered or confused

Bitter
Resentful or critical

Bombastic
Pompous and inflated; characterized by language that is too theatrical or grand for its subject

Brooding
Pondering anxiously or gloomily

Churlish
Boorish, rude

Circumspect
Watchful, cautious, prudent

Clinical
Analytical or coolly dispassionate

Colloquial
Informal, conversational

Condescending
Behaving as if a superior is descending to the level of an inferior

Contentious
Argumentative, quarrelsome

Curt
Rudely brief or abrupt

Cynical
Pessimistic, skeptical of others’ motives

Detached
Uninvolved, neutral, aloof

Earnest
Serious, sincere

Ebullient
Overflowing with enthusiasm or excitement (literally bubbling over)

Fanatical
Characterized by extreme enthusiasm; zealous

Fatalistic
Accepting that all things are determined by fate; lacking effort or action in the face of difficulty

Flippant
Marked by inappropriate levity (that is, taking a serious matter too lightly or nonchalant)

Foreboding
Fearful apprehension; a feeling that something bad will happen

Giddy
Lighthearted, dizzily happy

Gleeful
Full of joy; merry

Grim
Harsh, severe, surly

Histrionic
Excessively dramatic, artificial

Hyperbolic
Tending to exaggerate

Hysterical
Uncontrollably emotional

Indignant
Expressing strong displeasure at something considered unjust, offensive, or insulting

Ironic
Often mocking or comic, suggesting the speaker means the opposite of what he/she is saying

Irreverent
Disrespectful, flippant

Jocular
Characterized by joking

Lyrical
Song-like or poetic

Melancholy
Gloomy, pensive

Melodramatic
Excessively emotional or sentimental

Mendacious
Dishonest, lying

Mirthful
Joyous, gleeful

Nonchalant
Coolly unconcerned or unexcited; casual

Nostalgic
Characterized by a desire to return to a previous time or place in one’s life

Ominous
Suggesting evil or harm

Patronizing
Displaying a condescending or superior attitude toward something

Pedantic
Overly concerned with details or rules, especially in teaching. Or, ostentatious in one’s learning.

Pensive
Dreamily or wistfully thoughtful

Pious
Expressing respect for a god or gods; reverent

Pretentious
Exaggerating the intelligence or the value of a given thing

Rational
Logical, sensible

Sanctimonious
Characterized by a false display of devotion or righteousness

Sarcastic
A harsh or insulting use of irony

Saturnine
Gloomy and reluctant to speak

Self-deprecating
Mocking, insulting, or making fun of oneself (literally putting oneself down)

Self-effacing
Act of keeping oneself in the background of matters

Sentimental
Excessively emotional

Sheepish
Embarrassed or bashful, as if having done something wrong or foolish

Smug
Excessively self-satisfied or complacent

Solemn
Grave, serious, and mirthless

Speculative
Characterized by consideration and contemplation

Stoic
Unemotional and controlled, even in a situation of happiness or suffering

Subdued
Having a calm and muted quality

Tongue-in-cheek
ironic, not meant to be taken seriously

Understated
Low-key, restrained

Whimsical
Spontaneous, fanciful, or playful

Wistful
Full of a yearning or desire tinged with melancholy

Zealous
Enthusiastic, passionate

Acerbic
Harsh, bitter, or astringent

Aloof
Indifferent, or disinterested

Arch
Playfully shy or mischievous

Avuncular
like an uncle, friendly, humorous

Blase
Indifferent or bored, as if from an excess of worldly pleasures

Beseeching
begging, seeking

Brazen
shamelessly bold or rude

Brusque
abrupt, blunt, rough

Calculating
suggestive of scheming or manipulation

Candid
Frank, honest, sincere

Caustic
Severely critical or sarcastic

Cavalier
casual or indifferent toward important matters, often in an arrogant manner

Cheeky
disrespectful or imprudent in speech or behavior

Crotchety
Grouchy, irritable, contrary.

Derisive
mocking,contemptous

Desultory
characterized by digressiveness, or randomness

Didactic
intending to instruct

Disdainful
Feeling superiority or contempt for something

Dour
Sullen or gloomy

Elegiac
Expressing sorrow or lamentation

Enigmatic
mysterious, puzzling, or ambiguous

Euphoric
incredibly happy EX: Kat was _______ when she got into Stanford.

Facetious
not meant to be taken seriously, often humorous or amusing

Fawning
Seeking admiration by being flattering or servile

Glib
easy and fluent in an insincere way

Hard-Boiled
tough, unsentimental

Idyllic
Charmingly simple or rustic

Idolatrous
Excessively worshipful or reverent

Impish
mischievous, especially in a childish way

Incantatory
characterized by chanting, or uttering words as if they’re part of a magical spell (incantation)

Insouciant
free from worry or concern, nonchalant

Jaded
exhausted, dulled by excessive experience

Mawkish
characterized by excessive sentimentally, mildly sickening

Ornery
Stubborn and ill tempered

Penitent
expressing sorrow or sin for a wrongdoing

perfunctory
done merely as a routine, lacking care, interest, or enthusiasm

plaintive
sorrowful, melancholy, mournful

Polemical
Attempting to make an argument, especially against a person or doctrine

Pugilistic
Aggressive, related to boxing

Rhapsodic
extravagantly enthusiastic

Sardonic
mocking or bitterly sarcastic

Seditious
Rebellious, especially against an established government

Sententious
full of moral or aphorisms

Steely
cold,hard, determined

Supercilious
Arrogant, haughty, excessively proud

Sycophantic
excessively flattering, sucking up

Truculent
Agressive, harsh, belligerent

Urbane
Polished, elegant, sophisticated

Waggish
mischievously humorous

Wry
contrary or ironic

oxymoron
From the Greek for “pointedly foolish,” an oxymoron is a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparentlycontradictory terms to suggest a paradox. Simple examples include “jumbo shrimp” and “cruel kindness.” This termdoes not usually appear in the multiple-choice questions, but there is a chance that you might find it in an essay.

Takenote of the effect that the author achieves with the use of oxymoron.

paradox –
A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity. (Think of the beginning of Dickens’ Tale of Two Cities: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times….”)

parallelism –
Also referred to as parallel construction or parallel structure, this term comes from Greek roots meaning “beside one another.” It refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity.

This can involve, but is not limited to, repetition of a grammatical element such as a preposition or verbal phrase. (Again, the opening of Dickens’ Tale of Two Cities is an example: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of believe, it was the epoch of incredulity..

..”) The effects of parallelism are numerous, but frequently they act as an organizing force to attract the reader’s attention, add emphasis and organization, or simply provide a musical rhythm.

anaphora –
A sub-type of parallelism, when the exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of successive lines or sentences. MLK used anaphora in his famous “I Have a Dream” speech (1963).

parody –
A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule. It exploits peculiarities of an author’s expression (propensity to use too many parentheses, certain favorite words, etc.) Well-written parody offers enlightenment about the original, but poorly written parody offers only ineffectual imitation. Usually an audience must grasp literary allusion and understand the work being parodied in order to fully appreciate the nuances of the newer work.

Occasionally, however, parodies take on a life of their own and don’t require knowledge of the original.

pedantic –
An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish (language that might be described as “show-offy”; using big words for the sake of using big words).

periodic sentence –
The opposite of loose sentence, a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone.

The effect of a periodic sentence is to add emphasis and structural variety. It is also a much stronger sentence than the loose sentence. (Example: After a long, bumpy flight and multiple delays, I arrived at the San Diego airport.)

personification –
A figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions. Personification is used to make these abstractions, animals, or objects appear more vivid to the reader.

point of view –
In literature, the perspective from which a story is told. There are two general divisions of point of view, and many subdivisions within those. (1) first person narrator tells the story with the first person pronoun, “I,” and is a character in the story. This narrator can be the protagonist, a secondary character, or an observing character. (2) third person narrator relates the events with the third person pronouns, “he,” “she,” and “it.” There are two main subdivisions to be aware of: a. third person omniscient, in which the narrator, with godlike knowledge, presents the thoughts and actions of any or all characters b.

third person limited omniscient, in which the narrator presents the feelings and thoughts of only one character, presenting only the actions of all the remaining characters. In addition, be aware that the term point of view carries an additional meaning. When you are asked to analyze the author’s point of view, the appropriate point for you to address is the author’s attitude.

prose –
one of the major divisions of genre, prose refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms. In prose the printer determines the length of the line; in poetry, the poet determines the length of the line.

repetition –
The duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language, such as a sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern.

rhetoric –
From the Greek for “orator,” this term describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively

rhetorical modes
This flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. Thefour most common rhetorical modes (often referred to as “modes of discourse”) are as follows:(1) The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea,relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. The AP language exam essay questions are frequently expositorytopics.(2) The purpose of argumentation is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning,discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation havingan additional aim of urging some form of action.

(3) The purpose of description is to recreate, invent, or visually present a person, place, event or action so that the readercan picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses in description; good descriptivewriting can be sensuous and picturesque. Descriptive writing may be straightforward and objective or highlyemotional an subjective. (4) The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. This writing mode frequently usesthe tools of descriptive writing.

sarcasm –
From the Greek meaning “to tear flesh,” sarcasm involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridiculesomeone or something. It may use irony as a device, but not all ironic statements are sarcastic (that is, intended toridicule).

When well done, sarcasm can be witty and insightful; when poorly done, it is simply cruel.

satire
A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule. Regardless ofwhether or not the work aims to reform human behavior, satire is best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose forwriting. It can be recognized by the many devices used effectively by the satirist: irony, wit, parody, caricature,hyperbole, understatement, and sarcasm. The effects of satire are varied, depending on the writer’s goal, but good satire,often humorous, is thought provoking and insightful about the human condition. Some modern satirists include JosephHeller (Catch 22) and Kurt Vonnegut (Cat’s Cradle, Player Piano).

semantics –
The branch of linguistics that studies the meaning of words, their historical and psychological development, theirconnotations, and their relation to one another.

style –
The consideration of style has two purposes:(1) An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and otherliterary devices. Some authors’ styles are so idiosyncratic that we can quickly recognize works by the same author.We can analyze and describe an author’s personal style and make judgments on how appropriate it is to the author’spurpose. Styles can be called flowery, explicit, succinct, rambling, bombastic, commonplace, incisive, laconic, etc.(2) Classification of authors to a group and comparison of an author to similar authors. By means of such classificationand comparison, we can see how an author’s style reflects and helps to define a historical period, such as theRenaissance or the Victorian period, or a literary movement, such as the romantic, transcendental, or realistmovement.

subject complement –
The word (with any accompanying phrases) or clause that follows a linking verb and complements, orcompletes, the subject of the sentence by either (1) renaming it (the predicate nominative) or (2) describing it (thepredicate adjective). These are defined below:(1) the predicate nominative – a noun, group of nouns, or noun clause that renames the subject.

It, like thepredicate adjective, follows a linking verb and is located in the predicate of the sentence.Example: Julia Roberts is a movie star.movie star = predicate nominative, as it renames the subject, Julia Roberts(2) the predicate adjective — an adjective, a group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb.It is in the predicate of the sentence, and modifies, or describes, the subject.

Example: Warren remained optimistic.optimistic = predicate adjective, as it modifies the subject, Warren

subordinate clause –
Like all clauses, this word group contains both a subject and a verb (plus any accompanying phrases ormodifiers), but unlike the independent clause, the subordinate clause cannot stand alone; it does not express a completethought. Also called a dependent clause, the subordinate clause depends on a main clause (or independent clause) tocomplete its meaning. Easily recognized key words and phrases usually begin these clauses. For example: although,because, unless, if, even though, since, as soon as, while, who, when, where, how and that.Example: Yellowstone is a national park in the West that is known for its geysers.underlined phrase = subordinate clause

syllogism –
From the Greek for “reckoning together,” a syllogism (or syllogistic reasoning or syllogistic logic) is a deductivesystem of formal logic that presents two premises (the first one called “major” and the second called “minor”) thatinevitably lead to a sound conclusion.

A frequently cited example proceeds as follows:major premise: All men are mortal.minor premise: Socrates is a man.conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is a mortal.A syllogism’s conclusion is valid only if each of the two premises is valid.

Syllogisms may also present the specific ideafirst (“Socrates”) and the general second (“all men”).

symbol/symbolism –
Generally, anything that represents itself and stands for something else. Usually a symbol is somethingconcrete — such as an object, action, character, or scene – that represents something more abstract.

However, symbolsand symbolism can be much more complex. One system classifies symbols into three categories:(1) natural symbols are objects and occurrences from nature to symbolize ideas commonly associated with them (dawnsymbolizing hope or a new beginning, a rose symbolizing love, a tree symbolizing knowledge).(2) conventional symbols are those that have been invested with meaning by a group (religious symbols such as a crossor Star of David; national symbols, such as a flag or an eagle; or group symbols, such as a skull and crossbones forpirates or the scale of justice for lawyers).(3) literary symbols are sometimes also conventional in the sense that they are found in a variety of works and are moregenerally recognized. However, a work’s symbols may be more complicated, as is the jungle in Heart of Darkness.On the AP exam, try to determine what abstraction an object is a symbol for and to what extent it is successful inrepresenting that abstraction.

synechdoche
a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole or, occasionally, the whole is used torepresent a part. Examples: To refer to a boat as a “sail”; to refer to a car as “wheels”; to refer to the violins, violas, etc.in an orchestra as “the strings.” **Different than metonymy, in which one thing is represented by another thing that iscommonly physically associated with it (but is not necessarily a part of it), i.e., referring to a monarch as “the crown” orthe President as “The White House.

synestesia
when one kind of sensory stimulus evokes the subjective experience of another. Ex: The sight of red ants makesyou itchy. In literature, synesthesia refers to the practice of associating two or more different senses in the same image.

Red Hot Chili Peppers’ song title,”Taste the Pain,” is an example

syntax
The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is similar to diction, but you candifferentiate them by thinking of syntax as groups of words, while diction refers to the individual words. In the multiple-choice section of the AP exam, expect to be asked some questions about how an author manipulates syntax. In the essaysection, you will need to analyze how syntax produces effects.

theme
The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life.

Usually theme is unstated in fictional works, but innonfiction, the theme may be directly state, especially in expository or argumentative writing.

thesis
In expository writing, the thesis statement is the sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author’sopinion, purpose, meaning, or position. Expository writing is usually judged by analyzing how accurately, effectively,and thoroughly a writer has proven the thesis.

tone
Similar to mood, tone describes the author’s attitude toward his material, the audience, or both. Tone is easier to determinein spoken language than in written language. Considering how a work would sound if it were read aloud can help inidentifying an author’s tone. Some words describing tone are playful, serious, businesslike, sarcastic, humorous, formal,ornate, sardonic, somber, etc.

transtition
– A word or phrase that links different ideas.

Used especially, although not exclusively, in expository andargumentative writing, transitions effectively signal a shift from one idea to another. A few commonly used transitionalwords or phrases are furthermore, consequently, nevertheless, for example, in addition, likewise, similarly, on thecontrary, etc. More sophisticated writers use more subtle means of transition.

understatement
the ironic minimalizing of fact, understatement presents something as less significant than it is. The effect canfrequently be humorous and emphatic. Understatement is the opposite of hyperbole. Example: Jonathan Swift’s A Taleof a Tub: “Last week I saw a woman flayed, and you will hardly believe how much it altered her person for the worse.

wit
in modern usage, intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights. A witty statement is humorous, whilesuggesting the speaker’s verbal power in creating ingenious and perceptive remarks. Wit usually uses terse language thatmakes a pointed statement. Historically, wit originally meant basic understanding. Its meaning evolved to include speedof understanding, and finally, it grew to mean quick perception including creative fancy and a quick tongue to articulatean answer that demanded the same quick perception.

Allegory
the device of using character and or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning. In some allegories, for example, an author may intend the characters to personify an abstraction like hope or freedom. The allegorical meaning usually deals with moral truth or a generalization about human existence.

alliteration
The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words (as in “she sells seashells”). Although the term is not frequently in the multiple choice section, you can look for alliteration in any essay passage. The repetition can reinforce meaning, unify ideas, supply a musical sound, and/or echo the sense of the passage.

allusion
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical. There are many more possibilities, anda work may simultaneously use multiple layers of allusion.

ambiguity
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.

analogy
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An analogy can explainsomething unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something more familiar. Analogies can alsomake writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging.

antecedent
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun. The AP language exam occasionally asks for the antecedent ofa given pronoun in a long, complex sentence or in a group of sentences. A question from the 2001 AP test as an example follows: “But it is the grandeur of all truth which can occupy a very high place in human interests that it is neverabsolutely novel to the meanest of minds; it exists eternally, by way of germ of latent principle, in the lowest as in the highest, needing to be developed but never to be planted.”The antecedent of “it” (bolded) is..

.? [answer: “all truth”]

antithesis
the opposition or contrast of ideas; the direct opposite.

aphorism
A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle. (If the authorship is unknown, the statement is generally considered to be a folk proverb.) An aphorism can be a memorable summation of the author’s point.

apostrophe
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.

It is an address to someone or something that cannot answer. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity. William Wordsworth addresses John Milton as he writes, “Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour: / England hath need of thee.” Another example is Keats’ “Ode to a Grecian Urn,” in which Keats addresses the urn itself: “Thou still unravished bride of quietness.

” Many apostrophes imply a personification of the object addressed.

atmosphere
The emotional nod created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author’s choice of objects that are described. Even such elements as a description of the weather can contribute to the atmosphere. Frequently atmosphere foreshadows events. Perhaps it can create a mood.

caricature
a verbal description, the purpose of which is to exaggerate or distort, for comic effect, a person’s distinctive physical features or other characteristics.

clause
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. An independent, or main, clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.

A dependent, or subordinate clause, cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent clause. The point that you want to consider is the question of what or why the author subordinates one element should also become aware of making effective use of subordination in your own writing.

colloquial/colloquialism
The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, colloquialisms give a work a conversational, familiar tone.

Colloquial expressions in writing include local or regional dialects

conceit
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects. A conceit displays intellectual cleverness as a result of the unusual comparison being made.

connotation
The non-literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning.

Connotations may involve ideas, emotions or attitudes

denotation
The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color. (Example: the denotation of a knife would be a utensil used to cut; the connotation of a knife might be fear, violence, anger, foreboding, etc.)

diction
Related to style, diction refers to the writer’s word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. For the AP exam, you should be able to describe an author’s diction (for example, formal or informal, ornate or plain) and understand the ways in which diction can complement the author’s purpose. Diction, combined with syntax, figurative language, literary devices, etc., creates an author’s style.

didactic
From the Greek, didactic literally means “teaching.” Didactic words have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.

euphemism
From the Greek for “good speech,” euphemisms are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept. The euphemism may be used to adhere to standards of social or political correctness or to add humor or ironic understatement.

Saying “earthly remains” rather than “corpse” is an example of euphemism.

extended metaphor
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.

figurative language
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.

figure of speech
A device used to produce figurative language.

Many compare dissimilar things. Figures of speech include apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.

generic conventions
This term describes traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre; for example, they differentiate an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography and political writing. On the AP language exam, try to distinguish the unique features of a writer’s work from those dictated by convention.

genre
The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama. However, genre is a flexible term; within these broad boundaries exist many subdivisions that are often called genres themselves.

For example, prose can be divided into fiction (novels and short stories) or nonfiction (essays, biographies,autobiographies, etc.). Poetry can be divided into lyric, dramatic, narrative, epic, etc. Drama can be divided into tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce, etc. On the AP language exam, expect the majority of the passages to be from the following genres: autobiography, biography, diaries, criticism, essays, and journalistic, political, scientific, and nature writing. They may be fiction or poetry.

homily
This term literally means “sermon,” but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice

hyperbole
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.

(The literal Greek meaning is “overshoot.”) Hyperboles often have a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possible. Often, hyperbole produces irony. The opposite of hyperbole is understatement.

imagery
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, imagery uses terms related to the five senses: visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory.

On a broader and deeper level, however, one image can represent more than one thing. For example, a rose may present visual imagerywhile also representing the color in a woman’s cheeks and/or symbolizing some degree of perfection. An author may use complex imagery while simultaneously employing other figures of speech, especially metaphor and simile. In addition, this term can apply to the total of all the images in a work. On the AP language exam, pay attention to how an author creates imagery and to the effect of this imagery.

inference/infer
To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented. When a multiple choice question asks for an inference to be drawn from a passage, the most direct, most reasonable inference is the safest answer choice.

If an inference is implausible, it’s unlikely to be the correct answer. Note that if the answer choice is directly stated, it is not inferred and it is wrong. You must be careful to note the connotation negative or positive – of the choices.

invective
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language. (For example, in Henry IV, Part I, Prince Hal calls the large character of Falstaff “this sanguine coward, this bedpresser, this horseback breaker, this huge hill of flesh.

“)

irony/ironic
The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, or the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true. Irony is often used to create poignancy or humor. In general, there are three major types of irony used in language.

(1) verbal irony
when the words literally state the opposite of the writer’s (or speaker’s) meaning

(2) situational irony
when events turn out the opposite of what was expected; when what the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen

(3) dramatic irony
when facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.

litotes (pronounced almost like “little tee”)
a form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite. Litote is the opposite of hyperbole. Examples: “Not a bad idea,” “Not many,” “It isn’t very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain” (Salinger, Catcher in the Rye).

loose sentence/non-periodic sentence
A type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses.

If a period were placed at the end of the independent clause, the clause would be a complete sentence. A work containing many loose sentences often seems informal, relaxed, or conversational. Generally, loose sentences create loose style. The opposite of a loose sentence is the periodic sentence.

Example: I arrived at the San Diego airport after a long, bumpy ride and multiple delays. Could stop at: I arrived at the San Diego airport.

metaphor
A figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity. Metaphorical language makes writing more vivid, imaginative, thought provoking, and meaningful.

metonymy
(m?t?n? ?m?) A term from the Greek meaning “changed label” or “substitute name,” metonymy is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.

For example, a news release that claims “the White House declared” rather than “the President declared” is using metonymy; Shakespeare uses it to signify the male and female sexes in As You Like It: “doublet and hose ought to show itself courageous to petticoat.” The substituted term generally carries a more potent emotional impact.

mood
The prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work.

Setting, tone, and events can affect the mood. Mood is similar to tone and atmosphere.

narrative
The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.

onomatopoeia
A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words.

Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and murmur. If you note examples of onomatopoeia in an essay passage, note the effect.

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