Literature Chapter 1

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Last updated: May 2, 2019
Where was the first permanent English settlement in the New World?

What had to occur before a distinctly American literature could exist?
Dependence on England’s literature had to be abandoned

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Because colonial literature naturally reflected the intrests and concerns of its writers, it is not surprising that the earliest authors wrote mostly about.

Once the colonists had established permanent settlements, the subject matter of literature predominantly concerned.

Toward the end of the eighteenth century, most writers
presented a secular view of life

What is the unexpected result of Captain Smith’s capture?
The Indians offer friendship and provisions

What recurring theme in seventeenth-century literature is emphasized in the following excerpt? “Almighty God (by his divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion…. Thus you may see what difficulties still crossed any good endeavor;.

.. yet you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it.”

God supplied the needs of His people

In arguing for the worthiness of colonization, Smith lists responsibilities to four powers from most to least importance.

Which order is correct?

God, country, posterity, hummanity

William Byrd was an eighteenth-century
Southern aristocrat

In the selection of The Secret Diary, Byrd reads or translated from what two sources?
Homer and the Bible

Bradford began writing Of Plymouth Plantation in 1630, perhaps because
he was afraid that the Massachusetts Bay Colony would overshadow the Plymouth Colony

According to Of Plymouth Plantation, what is Bradford’s attitude toward the death of the young man who is the first one on the ship to have to be thrown overboard?
respectful of God’s providence and justice

Winthrop’s Journal primarily focuses on
Gad providential care for the colonists

In his Journal, why does Winthrop discuss the two kinds of liberty?
He was expressing the need for Plymouth to have laws and liberty

One of the purposes of Winthrop’s letter to his wife was to
warn her to be prepared for the dangers of sea travel

Rowlandson’s account of her Indian captivity was one of the most representative works of the seventeenth century in its portrayal of each of the following except
the need to preach the gospel to the Indians.

Rowlandson’s narrative
emphasizes the author’s reliance on God’s providence

Although Puritan theology lost its hold on American thought within two hundred years, what is one aspect of Puritan influence that continues today?
Work ethic

Name one of the nonreligious motives for immigration?
The ability to rise in social classes

Who were the two leading figures of the Great Awakening?
George Whitfield and Johnathan Edwards

Name one of the descriptive names of God used by the deists?

After the 1750’s, the Puritan influence lingered only in the vaguely ethical, secular form apparent in the writings of what two authors?
Franklin, Hawthorn

The Separatist theory of government by contract of those governed evidently influenced what eighteenth-century document?

The first consciously American voices began to speak through literature after what major war?
Revolutionary War

With what colony is Byrd primarily associated?

In Of Plymouth Plantation, Bradford alludes to Mount Pisgah, where Moses viewed the land promised by God to His people. What is the purpose of this Biblical reference?
The colonists seeing America

What book of the Bible was the primary basis for the law of the Massachusetts Bay Colony?

To what Biblical character did Cotton Mather compare Winthrop?

According to Winthrop, which type of liberty does man have in common with animals?

Winthrop refers to what two relationships to describe civil or federal liberty?

Mary Rowlandson’s captivity took place during what Indian war?
King Phillip’s

As a prototype of the American businessmen, Samuel Sewell is often referred to as the first what?

The main motive behind the early migrations to New England was religious.

Deism maintained that the solution to man’s problems lies in human reason rather than in the supernatural revelation of the Bible.


The primary purpose in early American literature was entertainment

In A Description of New England, Smith argues that the primary motivation to convert the Indians should be religion rather than honor or material prosperity.

The History of the Dividing Line is a journal of Byrd’s observations regarding the surveying of the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina.

According to Of Plymouth Plantation, in addition to the initial agreement written and signed aboard the Mayflower, the colonists wrote rules of law and order as they became necessary.

Winthrop’s Journal focuses on the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s religious policies as they affected political and social matters.

Rowlandson curses God and wishes to die after discovering what has happened to her daughter’s body.

The language of Psalm 1 and Psalm 23 from The Bay Psalm Book can best be described as what?

William’s belief about what principle has been influenced among religious and political conservatives since his day?
Separation of Church and State

What was the purpose of William’s book A key into the Language of America?
To introduce an Indian language to Americans

What does “The Courteous Pagan” contrasts on a symbolic level?
Cultivated manners and natural kindness

In “Contemplations,” the poet’s appreciation of the beauty of nature leads to what?
An appreciation of God’s majesty

In “Upon the Burning of Our House,” what reason does Bradstreet cite for determining that God is just?
All her goods belong to God

Which poetic device is featured in these concluding lines of “To My Dear and Loving Husband”? “Then while we live, in love let’s so persevere / That when we live no more, we may live ever.”

According to Meditations Divine and Moral, authority without wisdom is like what?
An ax without an edge

In Meditations Divine and Moral, what two symbols does Bradstreet use to describe discipline.

Salt and Sugar

The purpose of Preparatory Meditations was to what?
Prepare Taylor spiritually for preaching the sermon before communion

God’s Determinations emphasizes what?
God’s plan of redemption for the sinner and spiritual growth for the believer

In “Meditation 1.1,” the marriage metaphor emphasizes what idea?

In “The Experience,” Taylor claims that his status with God…
.. better than that of Angels

“His Glorious Handy-work not made by his hands” is a line from “The Preface” that illustrates what?

As revival spread in New England, about what did Edwards become concerned?
That it was difficult to distinguish true believers from those who merely professes Christ

The selection from Edward’s diary emphasizes his what?
Giving himself totally to God

As recorded in the selection from Personal Narrative, in the second stage of his religious history (during his college years), what does Edwards make “the main business of his life”?
Seeking his salvation

Each of the following is a central ingredient in Edward’s method of developing his ideas in “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” except
Historical allusion

What is the genre of “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”?

Johnathan Edwards has been called all of the following by literary critics except what?

By adding only rhyme and meter, what was the essential principle that the translators of The Bay Psalm Book were instructed to use?
Not to add to the Scripture

Each line in Psalm 1 and Psalm 23, as with almost all of the translations from The Bay Psalm Book, has one or the other of two different numbers of syllables. What are these two possibilities?
8 and 6

After leaving the Bay Colony, Williams started a colony in what present-day state?
Rhode Island

All three of William’s poems in the textbook use stanzas of how many lines?

Bradstreet was the first colonist to attain what achievement?
Write a sizable body of verse

What does Bradstreet accomplish more effectively than any other Puritan writer?
Reveal human drama of Puritan life

Based on subject matter, into what two categories can Bradstreet’s poems be divided?
Religious and Domestic

In addition to being a pastor, what was one other service provided by Taylor to his town?

According to “Meditation 1.1,” what overflows hell?
God’s love

What literary term is defined as a striking and often elaborate comparison?

In “Meditation 1.6,” why does Taylor want God to be his “Spectacles”?
So he can see us as God sees us

In reference to Edward’s writing, what is ironic about his seeming failure in being dismissed from his church?
His best writing was after he was dismissed from the church

Why were many of the church members who heard Edwards preach “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” unconverted?
The Half-way covenant

In the second sentence of the “Application” section of “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” Edwards begins to address his audience using the second-person pronoun “you”. Why does he adopt this strategy?
To make the message more personal to everyone

The Bay Psalm Book was very popular in the New World and was commonly used in New England churches for over 150 years.


In the latter half of his life, Williams refused to preach either to colonists or to Indians, maintaining that preaching tended more to corrupt than to preserve from corruption.

Williams believed that religious conviction does not exempt a person from the normal obligations of citizenship.

Bradstreet’s best poems grew out of her New England experience an illustrate the human dimension of Puritan literature.

In her poems, Bradstreet expresses rebellion against the unfair treatment of women in her day.

“On My Dear Grandchild” expresses the Calvinistic idea that infants who die do not go to Heaven.

Taylor was one of early America’s best-know poets, both in his own day as well as today.

The conclusion of “The Preface” has the triumphant emphasis of man’s undeserved opportunity to enjoy God’s majestic creation.


Despite a meager formal education, Edwards was able to converse with and challenge the leading intellectuals of his day.

Edwards’s view of man’s corrupt nature influenced later American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville

In “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” Edwards successfully alters the usual three-part pattern of the Puritan sermon in order to effectively bring his hearers to a point of decision.

Because Edwards is not completely clear about what he means by salvation, it appears that one of his primary purposes in “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” is to encourage his hearers to doubt their salvation.

What chiefly inspired Franklin to write his Autobiography?
The desire to provide a record of the circumstances of his life for his posterity

According to his Autobiography, Franklin accepted each of the following principles of religion except what?
That Jesus Christ lived, died, and was resurrected

In his Autobiography, Franklin emphasizes each of the following virtues in his plan for moral perfection except what?

Why was “The Way to Wealth” was written?
To preface the 25th anniversary of Poor Richard’s Almanac and to remind the reader of the maxims Poor Richard has offered over the years

According to “The Way to Wealth,” what was the response of the hearers to the old man’s advice?
They agreed with it and they didn’t follow it

According to “Exporting of Felons,” what is the reason England gives for sending convicts to the colonies?
To improve and sufficiently populate the colonies

What event inspired Paine to write the first and most famous of The American Crisis papers?
The colonists’ inability to defeat the British

Paine excelled at what?
Making concepts understandable to the common man

Paine served as a major spokesman for what influence entering American literature?

According to Paine in The American Crisis, God will aid the colonists and not aid the King of England because why?
The colonists have tried every means possible to avoid war

According to The Age of Reason, what does Paine believe about “national institutions of churches”?
They make slaves of men and women and are primarily concerned about “power and profit”

What made Bartram’s Travels especially significant?
Its emphasis on scientific observation and its literary merit

At the conclusion of the excerpts from Travels, why does Bartram say that he feels more at ease than he did earlier?
He did not feel that he would be the target of attack any longer

Freneau’s “To the Memory” is what genre?

Philip Freneau has been called early America’s what?
First truly national poet

A comparison of Freneau’s poems to those of the Puritans shows what?
Shows a fundamental shift in the view of God and man

“On a Honey Bee” employs the technique of burlesque by?
Elevating a trivial subject

“To the University of Cambridge” uses what technique by directly addressing God and the students?

“To the University of Cambridge” and “On Being Brought from Africa” are similar in.


Wheatley’s message that all men may have redemption through Christ

What word completes the following quotation: “‘Twas _______ brought me from my pagan land”?

According to Franklin’s Autobiography, what were three of the five ways that he learned to write?
Imitation, Reading, and Type Setting

According to the Autobiography, which virtue did Franklin add because a Quaker friend pointed out that Franklin was thought to lack this virtue?

What is the name of the wise old man who quotes Poor Richard in “The Way to Wealth”?
Father Abraham

According to this wise old man, what is one of the three ways that we tax ourselves much more than the government taxes us?
Idleness; pride; folley

In “Exporting of Felons to the Colonies,” what literary technique does Franklin use when he says, “Such a tender parental Concern is our Mother Country for the Welfare of her Children calls aloud for the highest Returns of Gratitude and Duty”?

What does Franklin suggest be sent as “Returns of Gratitude” for England’s gift of felons to the Colonies?
Rattle Snakes

In The American Crisis No. 1, to what does Paine specifically refer by the expression “what we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly”?

What providentially blunted the immediate effects of Paine’s Age of Reason?
Second Great Awakening

Travels combines a first-person narrative of Bartram’s experiences with scientific description of portions of what region in the United States?

What are the Neoclassic and Romantic aspects of Freneau’s “The Wild Honey Suckle”?
Neoclassic: didacticRomantic: use of nature

What is the theme of “The Wild Honey Suckle”?
Brevity of life

In “To the Memory,” what is the significanve of Freneau’s allusion to “the Parthian” cavalry?
They turned and fired on the enemy as they ran away

As mentioned in “To the University of Cambridge,” what are the muses?
IDK(add it)

What poetic technique does Wheatley employ when she uses un-rhymed iambic pentameter in “To the University of Cambridge”?
Blank verse

Franklin’s limited appreciation of religion probably results at least in part from his lack of religious training early in life.

According to his Autobiography, Franklin prayed for help to practice his plan for moral perfection.


According to the wise old man in “The Way to Wealth,” we need not be charitable to the poor so that they can learn “The Way to Wealth” themselves.

By the end of his life, Franklin was primarily a tragic figure, and his death in 1790 was mourned by only a few close friends

Ben Franklin said, “My mind is my own church.”

The success of The American Crisis papers during the war helped Paine continue to be financially independent and to subsidize his activity in France.

Based on The American Crisis, despite his disagreement with the attitude of the king of England toward the colonists, Paine is respectful of the king and his office.


Critics agree that Paine’s genius is in his style rather than in his thought.

One of the marks of Paine’s work is that he weaves his own beliefs about religion into all he wrote.

Paine has been called the “ungodly Puritan”

In his later writings, Bartram seems to reflect the atheistic view of nature that would become prevalent a century later.

During his education at the College of New Jersey, Freneau favored the new political ideas becoming popular in the decade before the Revolutionary War and joined other students who openly argued for American Independence.

Wheatley had an excellent education, emphasizing history and literature.


What intrest did Irving have, an interest that often affected his writing style?

Which of the following Latin words literally means “no place.”

According to “Rip Van Winkle,” what is “the only edged tool that grows keener with constant use”?
The tounge

“Surely,… I have not slept here all night” what literary technique is illustrated by this quotation from Rip Van Winkle?

Rip’s primary fault is a hatred of every sort of labor

Which of the following is not a theme of Cooper’s The Deerslayer, Chapter 7?

Which of the following adjectives would best describe Cooper’s religious views?

In The Deerslayer, from whom does Natty Bumppo learn his moral code?
Morevian Missionaries

What is the name of Cooper’s most famous series of novels?
Leatherstocking Tales

After shooting the Indian, Deerslayer boasts about his own superior skill in warfare.

First successful American novelist.
James Fenimore Cooper

First American writer with international fame.
Washington Irving

First American writer to emphasize writing and reading for the purpose of entertainment.
Washington Irving

Creator of the first mythological American hero.
James Fenimore Cooper

Used Geoffrey Crayon as a pen name.
Washington Irving

America’s first professional man of letters.
Washington Irving

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