Literature Review and Reasearch Ethics – Research Methods

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Last updated: May 12, 2019
What are the steps for beginning a Literature Search?

Define the research problem as precisely as possible2. Look at relevant secondary sources3. Select one or two appropriate general reference works4. Formulate search terms pertinent to the problem5. Search the general references for relevant primary sources6. Obtain and read relevant primary sources; note and summarize key points in the sources

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What are some types of sources for Literature Review?

Primary Source2. Secondary Source3. Scholarly Journal4. Trade Magazine 5.

News6. Popular/Sensation 7. Importance of Peer Review

This type of literature review source is first hand source of information: The original research article.
Primary Source

What is an example of a primary source for literature review?
Journal Articles

This type of literature review source consists of research where an author has summarized previous research
Secondary Source

What are some examples of a Secondary Source for literature review?
1. Textbooks2.

Trade magazines

This type of source for literature review disseminates research to other scholars
Scholarly Journal

What are some examples of a scholarly journal sources?
1. Journal of Athletic Training2. AM Journal of OT

This type of source for literature review disseminates the best practices to practitioners
Trade Magazine

What is an example of a Trade Magazine sources?

This type of source for literature review disseminates current news to general population

What are some examples of News sources?
1. Newsweek2. NY Times

This type of source for literature review disseminates “junk”

What are some examples of popular/sensational sources?
1. Vogue2. National Enquirer

What are the steps to carrying out the Literature Search?
1. Write the Problem Statement2.

Consult Secondary Sources3. Determine Descriptors4. Search Primary Sources5. Read and Record the Literature6. Write the Literature Review

When writing the problem statement, define your _______ problem
research problem

When writing the problem statement specify the research questions and make sure it is ____________ and _____________.
measurable and objective

When consulting secondary sources overview the topic for _____________.

What is the purpose of consulting secondary sources?
Purpose is to become more familiar and identify descriptors

When determining descriptors, determine terms to locate sources pertaining to your topic.

Identify ______ and ______ descriptors. Identify __________ terms that are associated with your topic

major and minor; secondary

When reading and recording the literature, keep copies of your literature. Read for understanding: ______________, ______________, _____________,______________, and ______________.
Introduction, Results, Conclusion, Discussion, and Methods

Writing a literature review consists of what 3 parts?
1. Introduction: Purpose of the literature review; Organization of the literature review2. Body: Organized, synthesized, concise3.

Summary/Conclusion: Concise review

This is a full citation of article or book that is completed in APA format. Includes pertinent information from the article.
Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliographies includes what pertinent information?
1. Purpose Statement2. Hypotheses3. Variables: Independent, Dependent4. Results/Findings

What should a Literature Review Outline consist of?
1. Major headings and subheadings2.

Identify where references will be placed under each head and/or subheading3. Make connections between sources

This approach is when you arrange your literature review with the most broad topics at the beginning. Narrow the scope of your topics as you progress through the literature review. Each new heading needs to have a connection to the previous sub-heading
Funnel Approach

What does a literature review report consists of?
1. Introduction2. Body of the review3. Summary4.

Reference List

A literature review should include a search for relevant information from: ____________, _____________, and ______________.
Meta-analysesSystematic reviewOriginal research studies

Conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group
Ethical Behavior

What does the statement of ethical principles consist of?
1. The protection of participants from harm2. Ensuring confidentiality of research data3.

The question of deceptions of subjects

What are some of the Nazi Germany Medical Experiments ( 1933-45)?
1. Freezing experiments2. Malaria experiments3.

High-altitude experiments4. Sterilization/Castration experiments

The Nazi German Medical Experiments led to the development of _____________.
Nuremburg Code (1947)

Tuskegee syphilis experiment occurred in ________ in Tuskegee, Alabama

The Stanford Prison Experiment occurred in ______ at Stanford University

“The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.” Subject awareness, Voluntary consent, Mental able subjects, and Researcher is responsible for obtaining
Informed Consent



What is NIH Human Subject Training?
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Protecting Human Research Participants”

What does IRB stand for?
Institutional Review Board

This act requires “All research institutions receiving federal funds establish an Institutional Review Board (IRB) to review and approve research projects”.
The National Research Act of 1974

The ________ Rule (45 C.F.R. 46) requires”All research protocols involving human subjects be reviewed by an IRB to assure compliance with the requirements set forth in this policy”
Common Rule

The IRB must have at least ___ members(Gender equality)

The IRB must have greater than __ person non-affiliated with the institution.


The IRB must have __ non-scientist

Exempt Review Status Purposed study has no risks to ______ subjects

Exempt Review Status does not require ___________ or _____________.
informed consent or all IRB members to meet

Exempt Review Status Research occurs in _________settings
education; Instructional strategies, curriculum

Exempt Review Status consists of _________ or ________ procedures
survey or interview; Anonymous, no risk involved, no sensitive questions

Exempt Review Status consists of collecting __________, ___________, or ___________ data.
documents, records, or existing data

Expedited Review Status has ___________ risks involved; Group or individual behavior observation; Many class projects

Expedited Review Status often requires ________ or _________.
informed or oral consent

Expedited Review Status _________ require all IRB members to meet.
does not

Full Review Status is a purposed study that has ___________ elements

What are the questionable elements in the Full Review Status?
Special PopulationsUnusual Equipment or ProceduresInvasive Measurement(s)Deception

A Full Review Status requires _____ members of IRB to make a decision.

Research with children presents special issues for researchers such as, ___________, ___________, and _____________.

More vulnerable Fewer legal rightsMay not understand informed consent

Research with children requires ________ and ________.
assent and parental consent

What possible guidelines need to be considered with research with children?
1. Keep info given by children confidential2. Must be careful with coercion

What are some examples of special research populations?
1. Prisoners2. Cognitively challenged3. Fetuses and Pregnant Women4.

Marginalized groups5. Homeless6. llegal immigrants7. Low socioeconomic status

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