Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Alexander Castillo
Last updated: September 12, 2019
Magento2 Security FeaturesWritten by Eugene Shevchuk, Kira Kharevich 1.
Strong data encryption (available both in Magento Commerceand Magento Open Source) Magento uses an encryptionkey to protect passwords and other sensitive data. An industry-standardAdvanced Encryption Standard (AES-256) algorithm is used to encrypt all datathat requires decryption. This includes credit card data and integration(payment and shipping module) passwords. In addition, a strong Secure HashAlgorithm (SHA-256) is used to hash all data that does not require decryption.During the initialinstallation, you are prompted to either let Magento generate an encryptionkey, or enter one of your own. The Encryption Key tool allows you to change thekey as needed. The encryption key should be changed on a regular basis toimprove security, as well as at any time the original key might be compromised.
Whenever the key is changed, all legacy data is re-encoded using the new key. To change theencryption key, make sure that the following file is writable:yourstore/app/etc/env.php Please go to System> Other Settings > Manage Encryption Key: https://screen.amasty.
com/d5d47644cd8b7e27960796b4680db082.pngHere you can chooseauto-generation for the key or to use your own key.For the first variant,please set Auto-generate Key to “Yes”.To use a different key,please set Auto-generate Key to “No”. Then in the New Key field, enter or pastethe key that you want to use.Now please press”Change Encryption Key” button: once that’s done, new key is added.
Please keepa record of the new key in a safe place. It will be required to decrypt thedata, if any problems occur with your files. FORMARKETING: ??????? ??????:http://docs.magento.
com/m2/ce/user_guide/system/encryption-key.html. 2. Session Validation Magento Open Sourceallows you to validate session variables as a protective measure againstpossible session fixation attacks, or attempts to poison or hijack usersessions.
The Session Validation Settings determine how session variables arevalidated during each store visit, and if the session ID is included in the URLof the store.The validation checksto see that visitors are who they say they are by comparing the value in thevalidation variables against the session data that is already stored in$_SESSION data for the user. Validation fails if the information is nottransmitted as expected, and the corresponding variable is empty. Depending onthe session validation settings, if a session variable fails the validationprocess, the client session immediately terminates.Enabling all of thevalidation variables can help prevent attacks, but might also impact theperformance of the server. By default, all session variable validation isdisabled.
We recommend to experiment with the settings to find the bestcombination for your Magento installation. Activating all of the validationvariables might prove to be unduly restrictive, and prevent access to customerswho have Internet connections that pass through a proxy server, or thatoriginate from behind a firewall. You can find SessionValidation Setting under Stores > Settings > Configuration > General> Web: https://screen.amasty.com/a3958c73ff6b03e37492fb9b4e6163c1.pngTo verify that the IPaddress of a request matches what is stored in the $_SESSION variable, setValidate REMOTE_ADDR to “Yes.
“To verify that theproxy address of an incoming request matches what is stored in the $_SESSIONvariable, set Validate HTTP_VIA to “Yes.”To verify that theforwarded-for address of a request matches what is stored in the $_SESSIONvariable, set Validate HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR to “Yes.”To verify that thebrowser or device that is used to access the store during a session matcheswhat is stored in the $_SESSION variable, set Validate HTTP_USER_AGENT to”Yes.”If you want a user tostay logged in while switching between stores, set Use SID on Frontend to”Yes.”If including SID withanalytics, you must configure your analytics software to filter the SID fromURLs, so the page visit counts are correct. FORMARKETING: ??????? ??????: http://docs.
magento.com/m2/ce/user_guide/stores/security-session-validation.html. 3. Cookie Validation HTTP Cookie is a small packet ofdata which is sent from a web server to a user’s web browser.
Since HTTP is astateless protocol, it can not relay information from one page to the other —that is why a cookie is required.Secure cookie is a type of cookiewhich is transmitted over an encrypted HTTP connection. When setting thecookie, the secure attribute instructs the browser that the cookie should onlybe returned to the application over encrypted connections.
In 2016 Google Chrome version 51introduced a new kind of cookie which can only be sent in requests originatingfrom the same origin as the target domain. This restriction mitigates attackssuch as cross-site request forgery (XSRF). A cookie is given thischaracteristic by setting the SameSite flag to Strict or Lax.To send secury and HttpOnly cookie,you should use setcookie() function with params true and true in 6 and 7position, like:setcookie($name, $value, $expTime,$path, $domain, true, true);By default, Magento checks if httpsis enabled and set secury flag automatically. If you want to use HttpOnly flagfor cookie, you can enable it in Magento admin panel.
In Magento 2 you willfind this configuration by path Stores > Configuration > General > Web> Default Cookie Settings:https://screen.amasty.com/1516721084574.jpg For Marketing ??????? ?????? – https://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Secure_cookies https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_cookie#SameSite_cookie 4.
CSRF protection. CSRF (Cross SiteRequest Forgery, also known as XSRF) is a type of web-site visitor attack thatexploits the disadvantages of the HTTP protocol. If the victim comes to aweb-site created by an attacker, a request is sent to it on behalf of anotherserver performing a certain malicious operation. To perform this attack, thevictim must be authenticated on the server to which the request is sent, andthis request should not require any acknowledgment from the user that can notbe ignored or forged by the attacking script.The main application ofCSRF is forcing the execution of any actions on the vulnerable site on thebehalf of the victim (changing the password, the secret question for passwordrecovery, mail, adding an administrator, etc.
). Moreover, it is possible to usemirrored XSS detected on another server using CSRF.Magento 2 usesadditional secret token to protect against such attacks, which is automaticallygenerated along with any form where the information is sent and after the formis submitted, Magento 2 checks for a match between token submitted and thetoken that is stored within the session. If the results coincide, then the userfor which the form has been generated and the user that has submitted the formare the same. If the token is not valid, the form is not further processed andno data will be changed. ForMarketing – Cross-Site Request Forgery Securitylab.
ru, 13 ????? 2007 ?. ????????? ???? 5. XSS protection. XSS (Cross-SiteScripting) is a type of attack on a web-based system that involves inserting amalicious code page (which will be executed on the user’s computer when thepage is opened to it) and interacting with the malicious web-server. It is akind of attack called “code injection”.
The peculiarity of suchattacks means that the malicious code can use the authorization of the user inthe web-system to obtain an expanded access to it or to obtain userauthorization data. Malicious code can be inserted into the page either througha vulnerability in the web-server or through a vulnerability on the user’scomputer.XSS was put on thethird place in the key risks ranking of web applications according to OWASP2013. For a long time, programmers have not given them due attention, oftenconsidering them harmless. However, this opinion is erroneous: on the page orin the HTTP-Cookie there may be especially vulnerable data (for example, theadministrator session ID or the number of payment documents), and where thereis no protection against CSRF, the attacker can perform any actions availableto the user. Cross-site scripting can be used to conduct a DoS attack.
PreventingXSSXSS vulnerabilities canbe prevented by always validating and sanitizing both user input and output,i.e., user input should never be trusted. Both the PHP language and Magentoprovides classes and functions (for example, escaper classes) to help secureyour extension from XSS vulnerabilities.InputProcessingAny data you receivefrom an external source need to be validated and sanitized to prevent thestorage or execution of malicious code. Input data need to be validated withinthe accepted possible values for that data item. This can vary depending onwhat that data is used for, but certain field validations can be applied almostuniversally such as checking for control characters.OutputProcessingOutput processinginvolves sanitizing strings that may have come from external data sourcesbefore sending it to the browser to be rendered with templates.
It is the mainmethod of protecting your extension from XSS attacks.For more information,please see the article on templates XSS security: http://devdocs.magento.
com/guides/v2.2/frontend-dev-guide/templates/template-security.htmlUsing the Escaper classesMagento provides theEscaper class for HTML output.
escapeUrl() – Used forescaping strings that will be used in a URL. You shouldn’t escapetext, if it’s a result of Magento methods like getTitleHtml(), getHtmlTitle()or PHP methods like count(). Also, don’t escape variables, which forced reducesto some type like int, float, boolean. For example, getId() ?>.
Output in a singlequotes or output in a double quotes without variables also doesn’t requireescaping. ForMarketing. ??????? ?????? http://devdocs.magento.com/guides/v2.
2/extension-dev-guide/xss-protection.html ? ? ????Jatana1, Nishtha, Agrawal, Adwiteeya, Sobti,Kritika Post XSS Exploitation: Advanced Attacks and Remedies — P. 9. ?Seth Fogie, Jeremiah Grossman, 2007, p. 290, 379.