Use of non humans

There are great difficulties in measuring the intelligence of animals and furthermore measuring the intelligence of animals can be problematic Olds and Milner stimulated rats by an electrode implanted near their limbic system Shows that rats stimulate themselves more than 2000 times per day within 24 consecutive hours for a reward of electrical self stimulation of the brain Basic physiology of the brain and the nervous system of animals is


“Statins for all! …. but isn’t cholesterol a vital cellular component? ” Nowadays, many people associate cholesterol with diseases and refer it to something harmful to human body; however, cholesterol is not all bad. In fact, it is one of the essential cellular components in animal cells. Figure 1 (NIGMS, 2011) Figure 2. (Medex UK, 2009) Cholesterol is a waxy steroid, mostly made by in the liver and found certain

ALIMENTARY by detoxification or immune function. The GI tract

ALIMENTARY CANAL.2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACTThe alimentary tract also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can serve multiple functions such as digestion, osmoregulation and protection by detoxification or immune function. The GI tract provides continuous water, electrolytes and nutrients to the body.  To do this, food is moved through the digestive tract, digestive juices are secreted for food digestion, water, electrolytes and digestive products are absorbed. The absorbed substances are

All major difference between these two types of

All cells that exist are classified one or two ways, either eukaryotic of prokaryotic. The major difference between these two types of cells is the presence of membrane bound organelles. The word prokaryote means before nucleus. Organelles can be defined as intracellular structures that are suspended in the cytosol and serve specific functions. (Martini, Ober, Nath, Bartholomew, & Petti, 2015) Prokaryotes are broken down into two groups, bacteria and archaea.

As involvement in ILD is yet unclear and

As our patient hadsmall joint stiffness along with positive Rheumatoid factor, Rheumatoidarthritis associated pneumonitis also should be considered as a differentialdiagnosis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemicinflammatory disorder mainly affecting the joints, and is associated with autoantibodyproduction.  Pulmonary involvement is a common extra articularmanifestation, while Interstitial lung disease (ILD) being the primarypulmonary manifestation of RA13. The two main histopathological patterns ofILD that are observed in those patients are  the nonspecificinterstitial pneumonia (NSIP)

The that there will be a positive correlation

The effect of increasing concentrations of Acetylcholine on asegment of guinea pig ileum IntroductionThe ileum is longest segment of the small intestine and itcontains a circular smooth muscular layer. The smooth muscle contains muscarinicacetylcholine receptors which should respond to the presence of acetylcholine(ACh) and initiate a contraction in the muscle (Widmaier et al., 2016). The aim of this practicalwas to examine the effect of increasing ACh concentrations on a segment ofguinea

This actually very complex. The lymph fluid is

This piece of writing will examine the lymphatic system. It will look into the anatomy and physiology of the components and their functions. Throughout; the lymphatic system, cardiovascular system, and immune system will all be looked at together to show how they work together. It will also look at the assessment of this system and what ethical issues may arise from a clinician carrying out these assessments. The lymphatic system

Nervous system

The peripheral nervous system serves as a medium between external stimuli and the central nervous system. More importantly, it performs the transduction of various thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, and chemical stimuli into a modality that can be interpreted by the central nervous system, i. e. electrical impulses (Guyton & Hall, 2006, p. 573). One such stimulus crucial to survival is pain. One might ask how the brain differentiates between different stimuli

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