medieval music

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Last updated: November 30, 2019

The Middle Ages fit into the dates
450 – 1450

Medieval Sacred Music (at first) music was not written down, but transmitted through
oral history

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The rhythm of Gregorian Chant is——–(no regular pattern of beats or accents) and the tempo is flexible.
unmeasured

Gregorian chants are based on
church modes

The song manuscripts written by the medieval poet-musicians are all in
monophonic notation

Often this accompaniment to the songs of poet-musicians in the Middle Ages would have included—-
drones1

(long held or repeated notes a 4th or 5th apart from the melody – like the bass guitar in bands today).
drones

The Motet (French for WORD
an added, 2nd independent line of music to the chant of organa.

Music notation
was developed during the Middle Ages.

Gregorian chant
was always sung in Latin and is monophonic in texture

Medieval motets
were a combination of sacred and secular texts, with the original Latin text sung in the lower voice part.

If a musical line is syllabic,
each word is set to a separate note.

The earliest polyphonic works were called
organum

The texts for secular music in the Middle Ages were written in
the vernacular.

The songs of the troubadours and trouvères were generally
simple monophonic song often, with instrumental accompaniment. Examples are Psaltery, Lute, & Drums.

The Harpsichord
would NOT have been used to accompany songs or dances in the Middle Ages

The medieval genre that employed polytextual settings was
the motet.

“Salve Regina”
is a monophonic Gregorian chant

Beatriz of Dia
was a Troubadour and noblewoman. She was well educated

Léonin
was the earliest known composer of Notre Dame, who was involved with the development of polyphony.

Leonin
was the earliest composer involved in the development of polyphony at Notre Dame

Hildegard of Bingen
was an abbess, composer, and author.

Hildegard of Bingen wrote Ordo virtutum (Play of Virtues)
the earliest complete morality play.

Hildegard of Bingen was
was the abbess of her convent and a composer.

“Ave Generosa
is a monophonic composition by Hildegard of Bingen

The twelfth-century composer who was both a troubadour and a countess was
Beatriz of Dia

Beatriz of Dia 2
was a noblewoman and well educated

A Chantar
” is a a troubadour song written by Beatriz of Dia

Guillaume de Machaut
was the French composer who wrote the first complete polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Mass.

The Messe de Nostre Dame, the first complete polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Mass, was written by
Guillaume de Machaut2

Guillaume de Machaut
was one of the most important composers of the 14th century. He wrote the earliest polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Mass (Mess de Nostre Dame)

Agnus Dei” (“Lamb of God”) from Messe de Nostre Dame was written during the Middle Ages by
Guillaume de Machaut.3

geregorian chant is named after Pope Gregory I because
he is credited with ordering the simplification and cataloging of church music.

Gregorian chant is
monophonic.

Agnus Dei from Messe de Nostre Dame
was a polyphonic Mass setting by Machaut

The Renaissance fit into the dates
1450 – 1600

Education and literacy became more widespread during the Renaissance, in part due to the invention of the
printing press.

Early Renaissance musical development was centered in
northern France

Early Renaissance sacred music was still frequently based on
Gregorian chant.

The Council of Trent
believed that sacred music had been corrupted by complex polyphony

Renaissance madrigals
were the principal form of secular music in England.

Chanson
the principal form of secular music in France, during the Renaissance

During the Renaissance, some music was written specifically for instruments
most of it was dance music – an important part of Renaissance social life.

In music in the Renaissance, imitation
(presenting a melody in 1 voice, then repeating it in another) was common.

A Madrigal
is an Italian secular song

A Chanson
is a French secular song

Instrumental music
written during the Renaissance was used in the church, social occasions, theatrical productions, and in private homes

The most popular instrument of the Renaissance was the
lute.

The term a cappella refers to
music sung without accompaniment.

The reaction by the Catholic church to the spread of Protestantism was
the Counter-Reformation

The Council of Trent
investigated every aspect of religious discipline, including church music.

An Italian Renaissance secular musical genre with sentimental or erotic poetry was the
madrigal.

Music written to represent the literal meaning of the text uses a technique called
word painting.

A type of French secular song that used accented rhythms and repetition was the
chanson.

Renaissance German secular song was called the
lied.

Original compositions, frequently written for the lute, were called
fantasias.

The Piano
NOT a popular Renaissance keyboard instrument.

It had not been invented yet?

To embellish music means to
add or change notes in the melody

One of the changes Protestant churches made concerning music was
to sing in the vernacular.

The composer credited with writing a Mass that was so beautiful and simple it supposedly convinced the council to reconsider abolishing polyphony was
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina2
was a Late Renaissance Italian composer who worked at St. Peter’s

In order to prevent the council from abolishing the polyphonic style entirely (during the Counter-Reformation),
Palistrina composed a Mass of such beauty and simplicity (Pope Marcellus Mass) that he was able to dissuade the cardinals from taking this drastic step

In the Renaissance, Palestrina
returned church music to the simplicity and purity of earlier times.

Palestrina
is credited with returning church music to the simplicity and purity of earlier times

The religious leader who broke away from the Catholic church over disagreements with its doctrine was
Martin Luther.

Josquin des Prez
was one of the most influential composers of the Renaissance. He composed the Renaissance motet, “Ave Maria”. His style was copied by many other composers.

Josquin des Prez 2
wrote “Ave Maria

John Farmer
wrote “Fair Phyllis

Michael Praetorius
wrote “Ballet des Baccanales

Claudio Monteverdi
published 8 books of madrigals. An active composer of the Renaissance who changed his style to that of the next period (the Baroque) in 1600.

1. Ancient
Before 450 AD

.

Baroque

1600 – 1750

Classical
1750 – 1820

. Romantic
1820 – 1900

5. Early Modern
1900 – 1945

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