-Actor ( the person who does something)-Action (a thing done)-Audience (witnesses to the thing done)-Arena (place where the thing is done-Arrangement ( how the thing itself is spatially and temporally arranged)
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roughly means “to show as example” refers to any thought pattern ( or world view) in a scientific disicpline are models made up of theories that help explain or predict phenomenon
Ways in which performances differ
-Objectives: what both actors and audiences expect, the reasons performances occur-organization; how actors, audiences, actions, arenas and internal arrangements of those elements are organized in relationship to one another. -Consciousness; the degree to which actors and audiences are conscious of each other and their objectives.
ones that enact stories about human beings before human beings
existing for only a moment in time before its gone
Theaters of ancient cultures
appear to have a relationship with ritual, either by evolving or borrowing from religious and social rituals
How is theater different from art?
it differs in the fact that it is an art but that it consciously attempts to be theater
All art is…
– self conscious creation of a person-seeks to produce an aesthetic responce-has both social and aesthetic value
painting, drawing, sculpture, literature and poetry
dance, music, singing and theater
theater is eclectic
within it are modes of expression like literature, dance, visual arts, music
Our definition of Performance
An intentional human creation in which performers put on a visual representation of emotion and action to affect an audience in a certain setting.
what makes art good or bad?
often times it is relative to to the period, place and viewer
performance that is through the eyes of technology, often a camera lens or a microphone
What affects community
factors such size, arrangement, and make up of the audience
theater in the round
theater configuration in which the audience views a performance from for sides, also known as arenaone of the hardest theaters to perform in
theater configuration in which the specators are separated from the performers by the proscenium arch that acts as a frame for the stage . audiences can only watch from one side
willing suspension of disbelief
they known the acts before them are not real, but for the time that they are in the theater they react emotionally as if the events are real
a release of tensions resulting from the climax of a tragedy
Poetics, catharsis; allows the audience the opportunity to experience emotions in the relative safety of the theater
Audiences have not always been _____________.
passive-in the times of ancient greece audiences were very lively (active, vocal, and even unruly)
When did audiences become passive?
19th century europe people started earning more and going to theater in order to get away from their lives. began watching melodramas;
a movement that developed parallel to romanticism, but outlived it to become the most popular form of theater in America and Europe in the 19th centuryplots on good versus evil, clear cut hero and villians
description, analysis, interpretation, and judgementdetails; production value actual progression of production
an intellectual construct created to explain or predict phenomenon.
a specialist in dramatic analysis and literature, production research and audience engagement-assists in the selection of plays-work with playwrights on the creation of new plays-conduct research for productions-serve as the in house critic “ideal audience member”-provides links between audience
worried about the heavenly; scared of performance ( Distracting/ trival, clouds)
Aristotle says a good tragedy has plot; one storyline or main eventcharacter; performance, has to lead to a tragical incident in a logical fashion.
thought; spoken unmotivatived dialogue ( every word has a purpose)diction; the expression of wordsmelody; musicspectical; broad visual elements
tragic flawhubrispride leads to downfall
comedy of manners
the way people act, talk, interact with other
comedy of characters
like the stooges; people being funny
comedy of ideas
somewhat of a bizarre idea that takes place
primary individual (or group/ corporation) responcible for raising money for a theatrical production
anything that can be read, analyzed and interpreted and critiqued
a plan or blueprint, or outline for a production; consisting of stage direction, dialogue, and dramatic action (the question, problem, or theme that forms the central focus of the play)
both the story told in the play ( the collective events that occur in the play) and the meaningful arrangement of these events
often the beginning of the play; information about the events that happened before the start of the play
makes fun of the behavior of Victorian aristorcracy which attacks great value to hipocrisy
often isolated, but occasionaly in a more group setting
idea for a play
can come from anywhere, an idea, an image, a dream
chief collaborative artist; gets everyone working together, gets all artists working together toward a common goal
in the middle ages, theater was all done for the glory of God
what is a royalty
fee paid to put on a production and the playwright gets a portion
does a playwright start with a general outline
no, they do not
in the renniasance, theater was the highest form of literature?
coined in the late 19th century with the advent of realism which led to the need for someone to help oversee and unify the actors
3 primary activities of directors
creation, collaboration, and problem solving
plays are selected according to
directors likes and dislikespool of actorspreferences of target audienceeducational value
plays can be chosen by….
director, producer, or artistic director
a short distilled statement that communicates the directors overall visionmay be an image, action, philosphical statement or metaphor
To create the overall concept of the play the director must…
engage in close analysisasses strengths and weakness of the playchallenges that might be facedbrainstorming problem solving
directors and casting
the director strutinizes appearance, vocal work, personality, potential, over all abilities
what is table work?
initial read through and discussion of the play text at the beginning of the rehearsal process
directing physical movement about the stage
activies the actor engages in during the performance
means to face the audience
-externalproduction style that emphasizes presenting theater to the audience without necessarily trying to reproduce “real life”outside inlearn by imitating
Internalproduction style that emphasizes the reproduction of actual life on stagemore passive audienceinside outreal live emotions
how long did presentational theater go for?
up until the 1750’s
a complex system of sighs, including movement. facial expression, gesture, set by tradition and handed down from teacher to student-sanskirt theater
when did representational surface?
during the early 17th century in englandsmaller sized theater allowed for more intamacy
renewed interest in the “classics” of Greece and Romeled to women being allowed in acting positions
late 18th and early 19th centurymore and more elaborate detail
-sought a means by which the actor could present situations, actions, emotions closely similar to everyday life-emphasized the importance of given circumstances in a play ( exploring how a character would react to a certain situation)-through careful analysis actor begins to create character
how would i react-objects; statements of what a character wants to achieve and determines overriding superobjective objectives expressed as acting verbs
most formalpicture frameactor and audiences clearly separated actor often pretends there is a fourth wallauditoriums often had raked seatingoften has deep wings to the right and left, for hiding actors and props1st introduced in italy
audience sits on 2 to 3 sides of the theaterraked theater for better viewingprovides a more intimate experience for the audiencescenery shifted by hand usuallyancient greeks used it for comedy / tragedy
middle ages theater
that had moving stages or paegent wagons
arena theater / staging
theater in the roundsurrounded by audience on all four sidesgreat sense of intimacyactors must always be mindful of their audience and has great demands on the actoravoids elaborate staging and mainly focuses on the actorRoman paratheatricals – gladiator battles, sports events, venationes
black boxcan be configured in any arangmentreferred to as environmental1960’s Richard Schecher
under taken largely by artists who are making their living in the theater; because of this profit may be the bottom line
done by artists whose primary income is not generated or derived from box office sales
manhattan theaters located outside of the times square district, once experimental but now quite commercial, tend to be smaller than broadwaystill considered to be professional
off off broadway
theaters outside of times square district that have replaced off broadway theaters as the primary purveyours of expeimental- non-commercial theater in New York city
are ones not originally intended for theater
theater originated outside new york city; the term usually refers to professional companies or non-for-profitfree from ties of groups, investors, can take more risks
George pierce baker
founding father of theater training at universities
theater can be a paradigm for studying human activity