Modern History Ch. 1

Topics: ArtArtists

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Last updated: April 27, 2019

Section 1
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How did the merchant class in northern Italy influence the Renaissance?
The merchant class in northern Italy influenced the Renaissance both by pursuing art in times where there were few opportunities to expand, and by becoming intensely involved in political life. Since merchants had to earn their success, their belief in individual achievement became important during the renaissance.

How did literature and arts change during the Renaissance?
Hoping to revive the life and culture of ancient Greece and Rome, educated men and women began to create new, innovative styles of art and literature.

Section 2
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What did Northern European rulers do to encourage the spread of Renaissance ideas?
Northern European rulers would encourage the spread of Renaissance ideas by providing patronage to artists through the purchasing of their works or the simple gifting of money.

How were the Christian humanists different from the humanist of the Italian Renaissance?
Christian Humanists believed that in order to improve society, all people should study the bible. While Italian Humanists were more interested in the revitalization of classical works such as texts and language. Many Italian Humanists criticized the failures of the Cristian Church.

Section 3
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On what three teachings did Martin Luther rest his reformation movement?
Martin Luther rested his reformation movement on these three main ideas; people could win salvation only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness. The church taught that faith and “good works” we’re needed for salvation. All church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible, both the pope and church traditions were false authorities, all people with faith were equal.

Therefore, people do not need priests to interpret the Bible for them.

Why did the Holy Roman Emperor go to war against Protestant German princes?
The holy Roman Emperor went to war with Prince Frederick the wise of Saxonney, Because the Prince disobeyed and in curial order issued from the emperor bye sheltering Martin Luther in one of his castles for almost a year.

Why did Henry VIII create his own church? Refer to the timeline on pages 58 – 59.

Henry VIII created his own church, because the Pope refused to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, so that he could take a younger wife and have a male heir.

Section 4

In what ways was John Calvin’s church different from the Lutheran Church?
John Calvin’s church taught that men and women are sinful by nature, and that God chooses a few people to save. These select few have been known to God since the beginning of time.

What was the goal of the Catholic Reformation?
The goal of the Catholic Reformation was to ensure that those remaining with the Catholic Church remained loyal to the Catholic Church.

What are three legacies of the Reformation?
Three legacies of the Reformation are; both Catholics and Protestants gave more emphasis to the role of education in promoting their beliefs, the founding of more parish schools and colleges throughout Europe, and the decline in the churches moral and political authority.

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