Mrs. Petersen’s Class: AP English III Literary terms

Topics: ArtSymbolism

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Last updated: April 23, 2019

SOAPS
rhetorical Analysis

logos
logical appeal

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ethos
ethical (moral) appeal

paronamasia/pun
play on words in which the same word is used in different senses or words similiar in sounds are used in opposition to each other for a rhetorical contrast.

asyndeton
the omission of conjunctions replaced by commas

3rd POV omniscient
the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in the story

hypophora
one or more questions is/are asked and then immediately answered by one and the same speaker

personification
gives inanimate objects human characteristics

audience
person or people literary piece is directed at

synecdoche
part that represents the whole

rogerian appeal
buttering up of one’s audience so as to lower defenses and create an objective ear

archetype
an original model of which other similiar things are patterned or copied.

analogy
a comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship and show howw they are alike.

euphony
pleasing effect to the ear; harmonious sounding

cacaphony
harsh discordance of sound

dissonant
out of harmony

dissonance
inharmonious or harsh sound; discord.

epiphany
a comprehension or perception of reality by means of a sudden intuitive realization.

bathos
appeal to sense of humor; usually crude or gross

elegy
poem that praises the dead

eulogy
speech praising that laments a person’s death but also emphasizes great qualities

rhetoric
act of persuasion; fathered by Aristotle

fallacies
not logically sound; falsehoods that destroy the argument

concession
giving in to part of the opposition’s argument in order to lower the opposing side’s defenses

false authority
representing an item but never using it i.e.

Jessica Simpson (proactiv commercials)

slippery slope
predicting without justification that one step in a process will lead unavoidably to a second, generally undesirable step.

amiguity
a quality that allows that readers to interpret a story or other work in more than one way.

warrant
major premise

claim
conclusion of a syllogism

black & white reasoning
form of reasoning that presumes an either or situation

faulty syllogism
an illiogical rhetorical fallacy.

enthymeme
shortened version of a syllogism that leaves the major premise unstated and consists of “because”

repetition
anaphora, epistrophe, antistrophe, alliteration, consonance, assonance, parallel syntactic structure, asyndeton

antistrophe
the repeating of words at the end of succesive phrases, clauses, or sentences to increase emphasis

epistrophe
similiar to anaphora but anywhere in a sentence

data/or statistics
part of logos

facts
appeal to audience’s sense of logic, ethics, and emotions.

Is a device but usage is part of the appeals

citing authority
the utilization of an expert’s quote in your argument to support

consanance
the repetition of consanant sounds in several words of a sentence

pathetic fallacy
giving emotions to nature

rhetorical fallacy
fallacy of argument; don’t allow exchange of ideas upon meaning

modes of development
information used to support & explain main ideas of a paragraph or essay, a narration, description, examples, classification, division, comparison & contrast and process, cause & effect, etc.

laconic
expressing much in little words

1st POV
expressed through the narrator to the focal character “I” “me”

syntax
the way in which words are put together to form sentences

nonfiction
prose writing that presents and explains ideas or that tells about real people, places, objects or events.

plot
the sequence of related events that make up a story

aphorism
lengthy statement that imparts wisdom

overstatement
form of hyperbole, but in a persuasive speech it is called an “overstatement”

understatement
a type of verbal irony in which something is purposely represented as being far less important than it actually is

parable
short story used to teach a moral

ad hominem
attack the person not the argument

trope
alters the literal sense of a word or phrase, so metaphor, simile & allegory are all types

polysyndeton
the omission of conjuctions and addition of multiple commas

literary allusion
a reference to literary work

paradox
two opposing ideas or concepts to form a new idea or concept

anthropomorphism
giving animals human characteristics

imagery
creation of mental pictures through pertinent word choice & heightened description; appeals to the five senses

denotation
precise dictionary definition; literal meanings of a word

description
any careful detailing of a person, place, thing, or event.

one of the for major forms of discourse; re-create sensory impressions: sights, sounds, smells, textures, tastes

onomatopoeia
a word that imitates the sound it represents

poem
a form of literary art in which the language is used for its aesthetic is evocative qualities

motif
a recurring image, word, phase, action, idea, object or situation that appears in various works or throughout the same work

denouement
the final outcome of the main complication in a play or story

local color
the presentation of the features and characteristics of a certain locality, so that the reader can picture the setting being described

FIDS
style analysis

pathos
emotional analysis

3rd POV (limited)
adheres closely to one character’s perspective

oxymoron
a condensed form of paradox where seemingly contradictory words are joined together

historical allusion
to use an image or reference from history in present-day

diction
word choice

antithesis
paradox that does not work, cancels out one another

chiasmus
a type of parallelism in which the balanced elements are presented in reverse order rather than in the same order

didactic
instructive in nature

apostrophe
a figure speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and was able to reply

alliteration
the repetition of a sound or letter at the beginning of each word of several words in the same sentence

caesura
a dramatic pause, used to heighten suspense

assonance
the repetition of a vowel sound in several words throughout a sentence

metaphor
a type of figurative language in which a statement is made that says that one thing is something else but, literally, it is not; compares an entire thing to another without using “like” or “as”

volta
abrupt change in tone

forensic
focus is to persuade by assigning blame or attempt to prove innocence

2nd POV
the narrator refers to the focal character as “you”

exposition
setting forth a meaning or intent

anaphora
repetition at the beginning of each consecutive sentence

parallel syntactic structure
using the same part of speech or syntactic structure in each element of a series, before and after coordinating conjunctions and after each pair of correlative conjunctions

symbolism
the use of specific objects or images to represent abstract ideas

biblical allusions
image or reference from the Bible alluded to in literature or pictures, words, etc.

deductive
general to specific

parallelism
use of similiar or identical language, structures, events or ideas in different parts of a text

syllogisms
3 part deductive formula- logical in nature and utilized to convince or persuade

idiom
an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from meanings of the words that make it up

irony
the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is

euphemism
the substitution of a mild or less negative word or phrase for a harsh or blunt one

colloquialism
refers to a type pf informal diction that reflects casual, conversational language (also includes slang expressions); region specific diction

minor premise
specific example from the major premise

either/ or fallacy
a “black or white” type of thinking where there are only absolutes

grounds
minor premise

essays
analyze rhetorical devices

connotation
subjective, cultural, or emotional definition; based on emotions and actions

tone
mood brought forth by story or poem

simile
a figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike things, usually with the words like or as

details
facts that support the thesis or assertion in a piece of writing

hasty generalization
drawing a general and premature conclusion on the basis of only one or two cases

red herring
diverting attention from the issue by introducing a new point

deliberative
this is the genre of political debate, but also the major genre concerned with the giving of advice in general; focuses on calling themed change

objective
based on facts and provably true

subjective
based on opinion and often biased

inductive reasoning
specific to general

major premise
specific statement asserted as true or as univeral truth

speaker
voice in a story

anomaly
something that does not belong; out of place

conclusion
marriage of logic: half of major premise + half of minor premise = ?

purpose
reason for writing the literary piece

figurative language
any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject

extended metaphor
a metaphor extended in length throughout a paragraph

maxim
short statement that imparts wisdom

occasion
event in which it takes place

genre
literary classification

fiction
imaginative form of narrative

theme
the main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work

narrative device
a design or pattern in a literay work used to achieve a particular effect

negotation
the process of discussion and compromise between conflicting positions

neologism
a new or invented word, expression, or usage

nostalgia
a yearning for the past or for some condition or state of existence that cannot be recovered

ode
a serious lyric poem, often of significant length, that usually conforms to an elaborate metrical structure

opening
the beginning of an argument or essay; the introduction

passive voice
in this verb form, the subject of the sentence recieves the action denoted by the verb. Allways consistes of a form of “to be” plus the past participle of the verb.

Example: The floor ‘was swept’ by Gretchen

pastiche
a work that imitates the style of a previous author, work, or literary genre; also a work that contains a hodgepodge of elements or fragments from different sources or influences. The imitation in pastiche is not meant as satire or mockery

persona
the character an author assumes in a written work

prose
any composition not written in verse. The basic unit of prose is the sentence, whereas the basic unit of poetry is a line of verse.

Prose writing can be rhythmic but is generally less musical than verse

protagonist
the main character around whom the story revolves

qualifier/ qualification
a statement that modifies or limits the meaning of a claim

realism
a loose term that can refer to any work that aims at honest portrayal over sentationalism, exaggeration, or melodrama; ordinary contemporary life, so to speak

reflective
thoughtful, deliberative

in medias res
latin for “in the middle of things”; refers to the technique of starting a narrative in the middle of the action.

identification
a rhetorical technique in which a speaker suggests his or her similarity or closeness to a particular group, such as the audience

hypothetical
involving a hypothesis (an assumption granted for the sake of argument)

refutation
the process of proving something wrong by argument and evidence

retrospection
a narrative technique in which some of the events of a story are describes after events that occur later in time have already been narrated; also called analepsis and flashback

rhetorical context
an extraordinary use of language to achieve a certai effect on an audience. examples are chiasmus, parallelism, rhetorical question, ans synecdoche

register
one of the varieties of language appropriate to particular social situations. The four stylistic registers most commonly referred to are formal, informal, colloquial, and slang.

romantic irony
an author’s persistent presence in his or her work, meant to ensure that the audience will maintain critical detachment and not simply accept the writing at face value

situational irony
a technique in which one understanding of a situation stands in a sharp contrast to another, usually more prevalent, understanding of the same situation

syllepsis
When a single word that governs or modifies two or more others must be understood differently with respect to each of those words. A combination of grammatical parallelism and semantic incongruity, often with a witty or comical effect

anachronism
an error in chronology, or placing an event, person, item, or language expression in the wrong period

anagnorisis
a moment of recognition or self-discovery; primarily used in reference to Greek tragedy

antecedent
in grammar, a substantive word, phrase, or clause whose denotation is referred to by a pronoun.

In logic, the conditional element in a proposition

anithero/antiheroine
a protagonist who is not admirable or who challenges our notions of what should be considered admirable

begging the question
the act of ignoring a problem or issue by assuming that it is already settled

bildungsroman
a novel about the education or psychological growth of the protagonist, or the main character

black comedy
disturbing or absurd material presented in a humorous manner, usually with the intention of confronting uncomfortable truths

caricature
in writing and literature, an author’s exaggeration or distortion of certain traits or characteristics of an individual

cosmic irony
the deception of fate or the universe as malicious or indifferent to human suffering, creating a painful contrast between our purposeful activity and its ultimate meaningfulness

dialectic
a form of reasoning that proceeds by juxtaposing contradictory ideas and synthesizing or finding areas of agreement between them

dialogue
a converastion between two or more speakers; also an exchange of ideas

discourse
the wider social and intellectual context in which communication takes place.

disgression
to turn or move away from the main subject of discussion or the main argument in a piece of writing

dramatic irony
a technique in which the author lets the audience in on a character’s situation while the character remains uninformed

emblem
a concrete oobject that represents something abstract; unlike a symbol, an emblem has a fixed meaning that does not vary in different contexts

epigraph
a quotation placed at the beginning of a piece of literature or at the beginning of one of its chapters or scenes to provide the reader with some ideas about the content or meaning to follow

epistolary
narrated through letters

epitaph
a brief statement to memorialize a deceased person or a thing, time, or eventthat has ended

explication
the detailed analysis of a literary work

expletive
a syllable, word, or group of words added to fill a void (perhaps to make a metrical scheme work), but which do not add to the meanng of a piece of writing i.e. “there” “it”

verbs of being
am, is, are, was, were, has or have been, had been, will have been, being, and to be; creates a passive voice

chronology
arrangement of events in order of occurence

pretentious (adj.)
behaving or speaking in such a manner as to create a false appearance of great importance or worth

anticipating the opposition
the inclusion of the anticipated argument before it is brought up by the opposing side’s argument

synthesis (noun)
the combination of ideas into a complex whole

synthesis (organization)
deductive reasoning

pastoral
an artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence

parody
a humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; a form of bathos

archaic (adj.)
having the characteristics of the language of the past and surviving chiefly in specialized uses

allegory
a work of literature that teaches a lesson by using animals or other things to proving a satire

anecdote
a short account of an interesting or humorous incident, often biographical

satire
a literary mode based on criticism of people and society through ridicule and humor

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