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ethical (moral) appeal
play on words in which the same word is used in different senses or words similiar in sounds are used in opposition to each other for a rhetorical contrast.
the omission of conjunctions replaced by commas
3rd POV omniscient
the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in the story
one or more questions is/are asked and then immediately answered by one and the same speaker
gives inanimate objects human characteristics
person or people literary piece is directed at
part that represents the whole
buttering up of one’s audience so as to lower defenses and create an objective ear
an original model of which other similiar things are patterned or copied.
a comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship and show howw they are alike.
pleasing effect to the ear; harmonious sounding
harsh discordance of sound
inharmonious or harsh sound; discord.
a comprehension or perception of reality by means of a sudden intuitive realization.
appeal to sense of humor; usually crude or gross
poem that praises the dead
speech praising that laments a person’s death but also emphasizes great qualities
act of persuasion; fathered by Aristotle
not logically sound; falsehoods that destroy the argument
giving in to part of the opposition’s argument in order to lower the opposing side’s defenses
representing an item but never using it i.e.
Jessica Simpson (proactiv commercials)
predicting without justification that one step in a process will lead unavoidably to a second, generally undesirable step.
a quality that allows that readers to interpret a story or other work in more than one way.
conclusion of a syllogism
black & white reasoning
form of reasoning that presumes an either or situation
an illiogical rhetorical fallacy.
shortened version of a syllogism that leaves the major premise unstated and consists of “because”
anaphora, epistrophe, antistrophe, alliteration, consonance, assonance, parallel syntactic structure, asyndeton
the repeating of words at the end of succesive phrases, clauses, or sentences to increase emphasis
similiar to anaphora but anywhere in a sentence
part of logos
appeal to audience’s sense of logic, ethics, and emotions.
Is a device but usage is part of the appeals
the utilization of an expert’s quote in your argument to support
the repetition of consanant sounds in several words of a sentence
giving emotions to nature
fallacy of argument; don’t allow exchange of ideas upon meaning
modes of development
information used to support & explain main ideas of a paragraph or essay, a narration, description, examples, classification, division, comparison & contrast and process, cause & effect, etc.
expressing much in little words
expressed through the narrator to the focal character “I” “me”
the way in which words are put together to form sentences
prose writing that presents and explains ideas or that tells about real people, places, objects or events.
the sequence of related events that make up a story
lengthy statement that imparts wisdom
form of hyperbole, but in a persuasive speech it is called an “overstatement”
a type of verbal irony in which something is purposely represented as being far less important than it actually is
short story used to teach a moral
attack the person not the argument
alters the literal sense of a word or phrase, so metaphor, simile & allegory are all types
the omission of conjuctions and addition of multiple commas
a reference to literary work
two opposing ideas or concepts to form a new idea or concept
giving animals human characteristics
creation of mental pictures through pertinent word choice & heightened description; appeals to the five senses
precise dictionary definition; literal meanings of a word
any careful detailing of a person, place, thing, or event.
one of the for major forms of discourse; re-create sensory impressions: sights, sounds, smells, textures, tastes
a word that imitates the sound it represents
a form of literary art in which the language is used for its aesthetic is evocative qualities
a recurring image, word, phase, action, idea, object or situation that appears in various works or throughout the same work
the final outcome of the main complication in a play or story
the presentation of the features and characteristics of a certain locality, so that the reader can picture the setting being described
3rd POV (limited)
adheres closely to one character’s perspective
a condensed form of paradox where seemingly contradictory words are joined together
to use an image or reference from history in present-day
paradox that does not work, cancels out one another
a type of parallelism in which the balanced elements are presented in reverse order rather than in the same order
instructive in nature
a figure speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and was able to reply
the repetition of a sound or letter at the beginning of each word of several words in the same sentence
a dramatic pause, used to heighten suspense
the repetition of a vowel sound in several words throughout a sentence
a type of figurative language in which a statement is made that says that one thing is something else but, literally, it is not; compares an entire thing to another without using “like” or “as”
abrupt change in tone
focus is to persuade by assigning blame or attempt to prove innocence
the narrator refers to the focal character as “you”
setting forth a meaning or intent
repetition at the beginning of each consecutive sentence
parallel syntactic structure
using the same part of speech or syntactic structure in each element of a series, before and after coordinating conjunctions and after each pair of correlative conjunctions
the use of specific objects or images to represent abstract ideas
image or reference from the Bible alluded to in literature or pictures, words, etc.
general to specific
use of similiar or identical language, structures, events or ideas in different parts of a text
3 part deductive formula- logical in nature and utilized to convince or persuade
an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from meanings of the words that make it up
the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is
the substitution of a mild or less negative word or phrase for a harsh or blunt one
refers to a type pf informal diction that reflects casual, conversational language (also includes slang expressions); region specific diction
specific example from the major premise
either/ or fallacy
a “black or white” type of thinking where there are only absolutes
analyze rhetorical devices
subjective, cultural, or emotional definition; based on emotions and actions
mood brought forth by story or poem
a figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike things, usually with the words like or as
facts that support the thesis or assertion in a piece of writing
drawing a general and premature conclusion on the basis of only one or two cases
diverting attention from the issue by introducing a new point
this is the genre of political debate, but also the major genre concerned with the giving of advice in general; focuses on calling themed change
based on facts and provably true
based on opinion and often biased
specific to general
specific statement asserted as true or as univeral truth
something that does not belong; out of place
marriage of logic: half of major premise + half of minor premise = ?
reason for writing the literary piece
any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject
a metaphor extended in length throughout a paragraph
short statement that imparts wisdom
event in which it takes place
imaginative form of narrative
the main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work
a design or pattern in a literay work used to achieve a particular effect
the process of discussion and compromise between conflicting positions
a new or invented word, expression, or usage
a yearning for the past or for some condition or state of existence that cannot be recovered
a serious lyric poem, often of significant length, that usually conforms to an elaborate metrical structure
the beginning of an argument or essay; the introduction
in this verb form, the subject of the sentence recieves the action denoted by the verb. Allways consistes of a form of “to be” plus the past participle of the verb.
Example: The floor ‘was swept’ by Gretchen
a work that imitates the style of a previous author, work, or literary genre; also a work that contains a hodgepodge of elements or fragments from different sources or influences. The imitation in pastiche is not meant as satire or mockery
the character an author assumes in a written work
any composition not written in verse. The basic unit of prose is the sentence, whereas the basic unit of poetry is a line of verse.
Prose writing can be rhythmic but is generally less musical than verse
the main character around whom the story revolves
a statement that modifies or limits the meaning of a claim
a loose term that can refer to any work that aims at honest portrayal over sentationalism, exaggeration, or melodrama; ordinary contemporary life, so to speak
in medias res
latin for “in the middle of things”; refers to the technique of starting a narrative in the middle of the action.
a rhetorical technique in which a speaker suggests his or her similarity or closeness to a particular group, such as the audience
involving a hypothesis (an assumption granted for the sake of argument)
the process of proving something wrong by argument and evidence
a narrative technique in which some of the events of a story are describes after events that occur later in time have already been narrated; also called analepsis and flashback
an extraordinary use of language to achieve a certai effect on an audience. examples are chiasmus, parallelism, rhetorical question, ans synecdoche
one of the varieties of language appropriate to particular social situations. The four stylistic registers most commonly referred to are formal, informal, colloquial, and slang.
an author’s persistent presence in his or her work, meant to ensure that the audience will maintain critical detachment and not simply accept the writing at face value
a technique in which one understanding of a situation stands in a sharp contrast to another, usually more prevalent, understanding of the same situation
When a single word that governs or modifies two or more others must be understood differently with respect to each of those words. A combination of grammatical parallelism and semantic incongruity, often with a witty or comical effect
an error in chronology, or placing an event, person, item, or language expression in the wrong period
a moment of recognition or self-discovery; primarily used in reference to Greek tragedy
in grammar, a substantive word, phrase, or clause whose denotation is referred to by a pronoun.
In logic, the conditional element in a proposition
a protagonist who is not admirable or who challenges our notions of what should be considered admirable
begging the question
the act of ignoring a problem or issue by assuming that it is already settled
a novel about the education or psychological growth of the protagonist, or the main character
disturbing or absurd material presented in a humorous manner, usually with the intention of confronting uncomfortable truths
in writing and literature, an author’s exaggeration or distortion of certain traits or characteristics of an individual
the deception of fate or the universe as malicious or indifferent to human suffering, creating a painful contrast between our purposeful activity and its ultimate meaningfulness
a form of reasoning that proceeds by juxtaposing contradictory ideas and synthesizing or finding areas of agreement between them
a converastion between two or more speakers; also an exchange of ideas
the wider social and intellectual context in which communication takes place.
to turn or move away from the main subject of discussion or the main argument in a piece of writing
a technique in which the author lets the audience in on a character’s situation while the character remains uninformed
a concrete oobject that represents something abstract; unlike a symbol, an emblem has a fixed meaning that does not vary in different contexts
a quotation placed at the beginning of a piece of literature or at the beginning of one of its chapters or scenes to provide the reader with some ideas about the content or meaning to follow
narrated through letters
a brief statement to memorialize a deceased person or a thing, time, or eventthat has ended
the detailed analysis of a literary work
a syllable, word, or group of words added to fill a void (perhaps to make a metrical scheme work), but which do not add to the meanng of a piece of writing i.e. “there” “it”
verbs of being
am, is, are, was, were, has or have been, had been, will have been, being, and to be; creates a passive voice
arrangement of events in order of occurence
behaving or speaking in such a manner as to create a false appearance of great importance or worth
anticipating the opposition
the inclusion of the anticipated argument before it is brought up by the opposing side’s argument
the combination of ideas into a complex whole
an artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence
a humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; a form of bathos
having the characteristics of the language of the past and surviving chiefly in specialized uses
a work of literature that teaches a lesson by using animals or other things to proving a satire
a short account of an interesting or humorous incident, often biographical
a literary mode based on criticism of people and society through ridicule and humor