His songs reflect Romantic elements of chromaticism, agitation, and natural imagery
Romantic artists emphasized deeply emotional expression and individuality
Valves are added to brass instruments, can now play in all keys, cast-iron frame and thicker strings give piano deeper, brilliant tone. Affordable instruments appear.
He played the violin and the piano, and was a member of the Vienna Boys’ Choir.
He was not an internationally known virtuoso but he was appreciated by the Viennese public.
He was a Bohemian artist and led a Bohemian lifestyle.
He died at an early age of 31 by contracting syphilis.
Symphonies are Classical
Lieder and piano pieces are wholly Romantic
Chamber music is directly in line with Viennese Classicism
He wrote more than 600 songs.
It is through-composed and music follows the action.
The poem has four characters — the father, the son, the erlking, and the narrator — and all are sung by one person
The song has an eerie atmosphere and the galloping of the horse is emulated by the piano.
He was a Bohemian artist
Chopin lived and worked in Paris among the leading intellectuals and artists of France.
He suffered from tuberculosis and had an early death from the disease at age 39.
He is known for his Polonaise in A major, one of Chopin’s most heroic works.
Program indicated by title or explanatory note—the “program”—provided by the composer.
Incidental music: an overture and series of pieces to be played between the acts of a play and during important scenes. Also applies to film music and background music in television today
Program symphony: multimovement orchestral work
Symphonic poem: one-movement work for orchestra in which contrasting sections develop a poetic idea, suggest a scene, or create a mood; also called tone poem
He created an orchestra larger in size than classical, and introduced new instruments, thanks to the Industrial Revolution.
Berlioz is called “the creator of the modern orchestra”
The five movements of Symphonie fantastique are unified by a recurring theme (idée fixe) representing his beloved
Chopin stretches the beat, which creates a romantic feel to the music.
Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique exemplifies the type of program music known as the program symphony.
* Inclusion of folk dance
* Reference to folklore or peasant life
* Programs based on a national hero, historic event, scenic beauty of the region
Early music studies in Prague
Smetana: The Moldau
* Second of the symphonic poems from My Country, which includes a flute, a clarinet, and woodwinds
* River Moldau (Vlatava) becomes poetic symbol of the beloved homeland
* Music suggests scenes along the shore of the river
In his later years his health declined because of syphilis, and he grew deaf
Along with Smetana, was a founder of the Czech national school
In 1891, he received an invitation from Jeannette Thurber to become the director of the National Conservatory of Music, in New York City
* His three-year stay in the U.S. inspired a symphony, several chamber pieces, and a cello concerto
He wrote From the New World Symphony, which was loosely programmatic. It was dedicated to Negro spirituals and American Indian heritage.
At age 40 began writing his great symphonic works
Traditionalist, favored forms of the Classical masters
Known for 4 symphonies, solo piano and chamber music, Lieder
Felix Mendelssohn preserves many Classical elements in his compositions, including his Violin Concerto in E minor, which he is most known for.
* More dramatic Allegro, usually sonata form
* Lyrical slow movement
* Brilliant finale
* Cadenzas appear in a variety of positions, showcasing performer’s skills
The concerto was a vehicle for brilliant virtuosic display by the soloist.
Many concertos were written for a specific soloist and tailored to the technical abilities of that musician.
Favored genres include part songs (unaccompanied secular songs with three or four voice parts), the oratorio, the Mass, and the Requiem Mass.
Text drawn from: Old and New Testaments, Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, Ecclesiastes, Paul, Matthew, Peter, John, Revelation
Verdi’s Aida, Saint-Saëns’s Samson and Delilah, Richard Strauss’s Salome are examples of exotic plots in opera
Many of Verdi’s operas draw on well-known literary sources, including several from Shakespeare plays and they epitomize Romantic drama and passion
The Rigoletto tells a tale of seduction and deceit, with a tragic end and is sort of like the story of the hunchback of Notre Dame.
Aida is a love story and the libretto is Egyptian.
Wagner wrote his own librettos and composed grand and nationalistic operas.
He is most famous work for his four-opera cycle, The Ring of the Nibelung
Richard Wagner revolutionized opera with his idea of the Gesamtkunstwerk— a total work of art unifying all elements.
Wagner’s operas—called music dramas—are not sectional (in arias, ensembles, and the like) but are continuous; they are unifed by leitmotifs, or recurring themes, that represent a person, place, or idea.
The emotional quality of Wagner’s music is heightened by his extensive use of chromatic dissonance.
The gold is powerful and is made into a ring
The cycle follows the path of the ring and its eventual return to the Rhine Maidens
Wagner adapted the story from Norse sagas and the medieval German epic poem, the Nibelungenlied
Four part cycle: Das Rheingold, Die Walküre, Siegfried, and Götterdämmerung
The characters are: fricka, Walhalla, wotan, siegmund and sieglinde, Siegfried, and walkuries – brunnhilde.
He wrote some of the best-loved operas in the verismo tradition
In Madame Butterfly, Puccini combines verismo (realism) and exoticism (Japanese music and culture), both popular at the end of the nineteenth century.
The libretto for Madame Butterfly reflects end-of-the-century European-American interest in geisha culture.
*Central tragic-heroic character is a geisha named Cio-Cio-San
* Act II, Cio-Cio-San’s aria “Un bel di” describes her desire for her lover’s return
Listen to the Nutcracker
Became an independent art form in the 18th century. Centers of dance appeared in France and Russia
The literary response to Impressionism was Symbolism, in which writings are suggestive of images and ideas rather than literally descriptive.
Impressionism in music is characterized by exotic scales (chromatic, whole tone), unresolved dissonances, parallel chords, rich orchestral color, and free rhythm, all generally cast in small-scale programmatic forms.
He was known for his Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun.”
*Symphonic poem, based on a Mallarmé pastoral poem
* Mythological faun
*Free ternary form
* Explores the worlds of the subconscious, hallucinations, and dreams
* Polyrhythm, polymeter, changing meter, irregular meters
Abounds in wide leaps and dissonant intervals
# Polychords, polyharmony
# New Conceptions of Tonality
# The Twelve-Tone Method
* Also known as serialism or dodecaphonic composition
* Atonal method devised by Schoenberg
* Strict system based on and unified by tone row
* Tone row: arrangement of all 12 chromatic tones
Stravinsky’s style evolved throughout his life; he explored Neoclassical and serial (twelve-tone) techniques.
largely self taught composer.
Second period reflects Atonal-Expressionism
o Pierrot lunaire
Third period reflects the creation of the 12-tone method and his time in America
Tale of a sad clown obsessed with the moon
In Pierrot lunaire, Schoenberg joins the text and music through the vocal technique of Sprechstimme (spoken voice), accompanied by highly disjunct instrumental lines (Klangfarbenmelodie).
He turned folk music into a 21st century idiom
He collected traditional songs and dances from his native land, and incorporated many of these elements into his compositions
Music publications were largely devotional, “white spirituals”
* Shape-note system designed for easy reading of music
Parlor and minstrel songs of Stephen Foster were popular and remain popular
By the Civil War era, the military marched to the sounds of brass groups
Bandmaster John Phillip Sousa promoted and fostered the American wind band
* Conducted the U.S. Marine Band and formed the group “Sousa’s Band”
* Wrote over 130 marches for band, dance music, and operettas
* Sousa created a national music for the U.S. — stripes forever
Incorporated jazz idioms in his works.
Experimented in Neoclassicism and 12-tone composition.
Composed piano pieces, orchestral works, ballets, film scores.
* Roots of jazz are in West African music (call-and-response), and 19th-century African-American ceremonial and work songs
* Ragtime, a precursor to jazz, developed from African-American piano style characterized by syncopated rhythms and sectional forms
Joplin and ragtime gained notice during a performance at the 1893 World Exposition (Chicago)
Active in New York as teacher, composer, performer
Created a new type of song known as ragtime, which stands for ragged rhythm. Ragged rhythm is syncopation.
Listen to the Maple Leaf Rag
* Regular sectional form
* Four strains, each repeated
* Syncopated rhythms
The term refers to a mood as well as harmonic progression
Vocal style derived from work songs
The art of improvisation is critical in blues
Recording of Heebie Jeebies introduced scat singing (syllables without literal meaning)
Jazz chorus is a single statement of a melodic-harmonic pattern
o Armstrong introduced solo rather than ensemble choruses
Style influenced generations of musicians
* Nickname “Lady Day”
Sang with the top jazz musicians of her day
Life deteriorated into drug and alcohol abuse
Died at 44 from cirrhosis of the liver
Recognizable singing style
Listen to Strange Fruit
o Advent of big band brought a need for arranged (written-down) music
Ellington was a brilliant orchestrator
o His orchestral palette included a larger ensemble
One of the Ellington Orchestra’s most popular tunes was Take the A Train
* Accomplished pianist and songwriter
* Tin Pan Alley pianist
Listen to Rhapsody in Blue
Appointed assistant conductor of the New York Philharmonic at age 25
At 40, became first American-born and youngest conductor of NY Philharmonic
His music combines the worlds of serious and popular music
* Composed symphonic and choral music, film music, and musical theater works
In West Side Story, Bernstein attempted a union of jazz with musical theater
Set among street gangs of New York City
* Jets vs. Puerto Rican rivals, the Sharks
Influence of Latin dance music and jazz
* Crossed racial lines: white singers drew from black music; African-Americans got the attention of white audiences
* In the 1960s a bevy of teen idols emerged
o At the same time, black America turned to soul and Motown
* The Beatles took America by storm in the early 1960s
o Later Beatles music reflected non-Western musical influence (India)
o The Beatles’ success inspired the British Invasion (the Rolling Stones)
* California groups raised the standard for studio production (the Beach Boys)
* Folk rock also emerged in California, groups influenced by Bob Dylan and Joan Baez
* Eclectic musical styles emerged: acid rock (the Doors, Jimi Hendrix)
* Culminating event for rock music in the 1960s was Woodstock Festival in 1969
* Grateful Dead and Pink Floyd spawned a new generation of improvisational bands and trance music
The gamelan is an ensemble of metallic percussion instruments played in Indonesia (on the islands of Java and Bali, in particular).
* Music is played from memory, passed as an oral tradition
* Played for ritual ceremonies
* Supplying music that contradicts what is seen creates irony
o Technique known as running counter to the action
* There are two principal types of music in a film
o Underscoring: comes from an unseen source, often an invisible orchestra
o Source music: functions as a part of the drama, from a logical source
* Leitmotifs create musical unity within the context of the drama
The score by John Williams was immensely popular
* Incorporated full symphony orchestra, use of leitmotifs
John Williams (b. 1932)
* Wrote for television in the 1950s and 1960s
* Began to compose for films in the 1960s
* 1970s successes
o Star Wars, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman
* 1980s, 1990s, and the present:
o Indiana Jones, Jurassic Park, Harry Potter films, Munich
# Second movement: tends to be slower and more lyrical, but ranges in mood, often a loose ternary form
# Third movement: often an energetic scherzo, but can vary in tempo and mood
* Sometimes the scherzo is the second in the cycle
# Fourth movement: designed to balance the first movement in scope and drama, form varies, tends to close with note of triumph or pathos