What are the three words to remember about France during the Romantic Era
Liberty, equality, and fraternity
How was Franz Schubert a transitional figure between eras?
Schubert’s symphonies and chamber music reflect Classical tradition.
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His songs reflect Romantic elements of chromaticism, agitation, and natural imagery
What did the Romantic poets and artists write about during the Romantic Era and what did they emphasize?
Romantic poets and artists abandoned traditional subjects turning to the passionate and fanciful. Romantic artists emphasized deeply emotional expression and individuality
Who were Bohemians?
They were free thinkers who would hang out in Montmartre where people would recite their poetry.
How did the Industrial Revolution contribute to the music during Romantic Era?
The Industrial Revolution spurred many technical advances in musical instruments, making them more affordable. Valves are added to brass instruments, can now play in all keys, cast-iron frame and thicker strings give piano deeper, brilliant tone. Affordable instruments appear.
How did education opportunities contribute to the music during the Romantic Era?
Educational opportunities broadened as music conservatories were established across Europe and the Americas, resulting in advancement of performer’s skills.
What happened to the orchestra’s size?
The orchestra grew in size (100 players) and sound when new and improved instruments were introduced such as the tuba, saxophone, piccolo, English horn, and contrabassoon; in response, composers demanded new levels of expression.
What happened to the soloists and conductors during the Romantic Era?
Rise of the virtuoso soloist and amateur music making; Soloists, critics, and conductors became publicly idolized “stars.
” The central figure of the conductor became necessary because of the additional players and instruments.
What types of music do Romantic composers compose during the Romantic Era?
Romantic composers used nationalistic folklore and exotic subjects; use of folk songs and dances. Lure of exotic culture inspired composers.
How is Romantic music characterized?
Romantic music is characterized by memorable melodies, richly expressive harmony, and broad, expanded forms. Composers found new levels of expression: expanded dynamic capabilities, larger orchestras had a broader palette from which to create, orchestration (choice of instrumentation and the technique for learning how to write for each instrument) became an art in itself.
What is the German art song?
The German art song was Lied (pl. Lieder) and it is a solo voice with piano accompaniment.
What is a strophic type of song structure?
same melody repeated with each stanza, or strophe, of poem.
What is the through-composed type of song structure?
No repetitions of whole sections, music follows the story line.
What happened to the piano and who is the most famous producer of the pianos?
Grand pianos are now introduced to this era, and they are the preferred instrument since it can take more tension due to its structure. Steinway was the famous producer of the grand pianos.
Describe the life of Franz Schubert
He was a Viennese composerHe played the violin and the piano, and was a member of the Vienna Boys’ Choir.He was not an internationally known virtuoso but he was appreciated by the Viennese public.
He was a Bohemian artist and led a Bohemian lifestyle. He died at an early age of 31 by contracting syphilis.
Describe Franz Schubert’s music
His music exhibits both 18th- and 19th-century traits:Symphonies are ClassicalLieder and piano pieces are wholly RomanticChamber music is directly in line with Viennese ClassicismHe wrote more than 600 songs.
Describe the Erlking
It was the masterpiece of Schubert’s youth It is through-composed and music follows the action.
The poem has four characters — the father, the son, the erlking, and the narrator — and all are sung by one personThe song has an eerie atmosphere and the galloping of the horse is emulated by the piano.
Describe Frederic Chopin’s life
Half French (father), half Polish (mother) composer and pianistHe was a Bohemian artistChopin lived and worked in Paris among the leading intellectuals and artists of France.
He suffered from tuberculosis and had an early death from the disease at age 39.
Describe to Chopin’s music.
His creative life was centered on the piano and he is credited with originating the modern piano style. He is known for his Polonaise in A major, one of Chopin’s most heroic works.
What are the different types of short lyric piano pieces created by Chopin?
nocturnes, preludes, impromptus, waltzes, mazurkas, études, etc.
What are the different types of larger forms created by Chopin?
ballades, polonaises, a fantasy, sonatas, piano concertos.
Listen to Polonaise in A major
What is program music?
Program music: instrumental music with a literary or pictorial association, as opposed to absolute musicProgram indicated by title or explanatory note—the “program”—provided by the composer.
What are the four main types of program music?
Concert overture: not associated with an opera, a single-movement concert piece based on a literary idea Incidental music: an overture and series of pieces to be played between the acts of a play and during important scenes. Also applies to film music and background music in television todayProgram symphony: multimovement orchestral workSymphonic poem: one-movement work for orchestra in which contrasting sections develop a poetic idea, suggest a scene, or create a mood; also called tone poem
Describe the life and music of Hector Berlioz
French composer and conductor Hector Berlioz wrote Symphonie fantastique, a five-movement program symphony, while living in Italy.
He created an orchestra larger in size than classical, and introduced new instruments, thanks to the Industrial Revolution. Berlioz is called “the creator of the modern orchestra”The five movements of Symphonie fantastique are unified by a recurring theme (idée fixe) representing his beloved
What is rubato?
Rubato is robbed time. Chopin stretches the beat, which creates a romantic feel to the music.
Listen to March to the Scaffold
The plot of this song is a diabolical march. Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique exemplifies the type of program music known as the program symphony.
How was nationalism expressed in Europe during political unrest?
Nationalism in music expressed in a number of ways * Inclusion of folk dance * Reference to folklore or peasant life * Programs based on a national hero, historic event, scenic beauty of the region
Describe the life and music of Bedrich Smetana
He was a Bohemian composerEarly music studies in PragueSmetana: The Moldau * Second of the symphonic poems from My Country, which includes a flute, a clarinet, and woodwinds * River Moldau (Vlatava) becomes poetic symbol of the beloved homeland * Music suggests scenes along the shore of the riverIn his later years his health declined because of syphilis, and he grew deaf
Listen to The Moldau
The Moldau is a symphonic poem
Describe the life and music of Antonin Dvorak
He was a Bohemian writer as well.
Along with Smetana, was a founder of the Czech national school In 1891, he received an invitation from Jeannette Thurber to become the director of the National Conservatory of Music, in New York City * His three-year stay in the U.S. inspired a symphony, several chamber pieces, and a cello concertoHe wrote From the New World Symphony, which was loosely programmatic.
It was dedicated to Negro spirituals and American Indian heritage.
Describe the life and music of Johannes Brahms
He was a German musician and composer At age 40 began writing his great symphonic worksTraditionalist, favored forms of the Classical mastersKnown for 4 symphonies, solo piano and chamber music, Lieder
Describe the life and music of Mendelssohn
He was a German composer, pianist, conductor, music festival organizer, educator and he was born into a cultured familyFelix Mendelssohn preserves many Classical elements in his compositions, including his Violin Concerto in E minor, which he is most known for.
How were the concertos during the Romantic period?
The Romantic concerto preserves the Classical three-movement structure but uses standard forms (e.g., sonata-allegro and first-movement concerto form) more freely. * More dramatic Allegro, usually sonata form * Lyrical slow movement * Brilliant finale * Cadenzas appear in a variety of positions, showcasing performer’s skillsThe concerto was a vehicle for brilliant virtuosic display by the soloist.
Many concertos were written for a specific soloist and tailored to the technical abilities of that musician.
How was the choral music during the Romantic Era?
Choral music grew in popularity during the Romantic era and was an artistic outlet for the middle classes. Favored genres include part songs (unaccompanied secular songs with three or four voice parts), the oratorio, the Mass, and the Requiem Mass.
Who wrote the next requiem?
Johannes Brahms wrote a German requiem Text drawn from: Old and New Testaments, Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, Ecclesiastes, Paul, Matthew, Peter, John, Revelation
In what three countries did the distinct national styles develop in?
France, Germany, and Italy
What type of opera developed in France?
In France, lyric opera represented a merger between grand opera (serious historical dramas with spectacular effects) and opéra comique (comic opera with spoken dialogue).
What is grand opera?
serious historical dramas with spectacular effects
What is opera comique?
comic opera with spoken dialogue
What type of opera developed in Germany?
In Germany, the genre of Singspiel (light, comic drama with spoken dialogue) gave way to more serious works, including Richard Wagner’s music drama, which integrated all elements of opera.
What is Singspiel?
light, comic drama with spoken dialogue
What type of opera developed in Italy?
Both opera seria (serious opera) and opera buffa (comic opera) were favored in Italy; they marked the peak of the bel canto (beautiful singing) style.
What type of plots did the Romantic operas have?
Many Romantic composers turned to exotic plots for their operas, looking to faraway lands or cultures for inspiration.Verdi’s Aida, Saint-Saëns’s Samson and Delilah, Richard Strauss’s Salome are examples of exotic plots in opera
Describe Giuseppe Verdi’s life and music.
He is an Italian composer, who is best known for his 28 operas. Many of Verdi’s operas draw on well-known literary sources, including several from Shakespeare plays and they epitomize Romantic drama and passionThe Rigoletto tells a tale of seduction and deceit, with a tragic end and is sort of like the story of the hunchback of Notre Dame.
Aida is a love story and the libretto is Egyptian.
Describe the life and music of Richard Wagner
He was a German composer, who was mostly self taught. Wagner wrote his own librettos and composed grand and nationalistic operas. He is most famous work for his four-opera cycle, The Ring of the NibelungRichard Wagner revolutionized opera with his idea of the Gesamtkunstwerk— a total work of art unifying all elements.Wagner’s operas—called music dramas—are not sectional (in arias, ensembles, and the like) but are continuous; they are unifed by leitmotifs, or recurring themes, that represent a person, place, or idea.
The emotional quality of Wagner’s music is heightened by his extensive use of chromatic dissonance.
Describe The Ring of the Nibelung
The story of the cycle of music dramas, The Ring of the Nibelung, centers on the gold that lies in the Rhine River, guarded by three Rhine Maidens The gold is powerful and is made into a ring The cycle follows the path of the ring and its eventual return to the Rhine MaidensWagner adapted the story from Norse sagas and the medieval German epic poem, the NibelungenliedFour part cycle: Das Rheingold, Die Walküre, Siegfried, and GötterdämmerungThe characters are: fricka, Walhalla, wotan, siegmund and sieglinde, Siegfried, and walkuries – brunnhilde.
Describe the life and music of Giacomo Puccini
He was an Italian composer who studied at the Milan Conservatory. He wrote some of the best-loved operas in the verismo traditionIn Madame Butterfly, Puccini combines verismo (realism) and exoticism (Japanese music and culture), both popular at the end of the nineteenth century.The libretto for Madame Butterfly reflects end-of-the-century European-American interest in geisha culture. *Central tragic-heroic character is a geisha named Cio-Cio-San * Act II, Cio-Cio-San’s aria “Un bel di” describes her desire for her lover’s return
Describe the life and music of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
He was a Russian composer, who composed The Nutcracker, The Sleeping Beauty, and The Swan Lake.
Listen to the Nutcracker
How did ballet develop during the 18th century?
Ballet has been an adornment of European culture for centuries.Became an independent art form in the 18th century. Centers of dance appeared in France and Russia
Impressionism was a French movement developed by painters who tried to capture their “first impression” of a subject through varied treatments of light and color.The literary response to Impressionism was Symbolism, in which writings are suggestive of images and ideas rather than literally descriptive.
Impressionism in music is characterized by exotic scales (chromatic, whole tone), unresolved dissonances, parallel chords, rich orchestral color, and free rhythm, all generally cast in small-scale programmatic forms.
Describe the life and music of Claude Debussy
He was a French composer.He was known for his Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun.
” *Symphonic poem, based on a Mallarmé pastoral poem * Mythological faun *Free ternary form *Chromatic melody
What was expressionism?
Expressionism was German response to Impressionism * Explores the worlds of the subconscious, hallucinations, and dreams
What is the new rhythmic complexity?
* Revitalization of rhythm * Polyrhythm, polymeter, changing meter, irregular meters
What is the new melody?
* Becomes instrumental, not vocal, in character Abounds in wide leaps and dissonant intervals
What is the new harmony?
# Beyond traditional systems of tonality# Polychords, polyharmony# New Conceptions of Tonality# The Twelve-Tone Method * Also known as serialism or dodecaphonic composition * Atonal method devised by Schoenberg * Strict system based on and unified by tone row * Tone row: arrangement of all 12 chromatic tones
Describe the life and music of Igor Stravinsky
He was a Russian composer who was known for his “Rite of Spring”Stravinsky’s style evolved throughout his life; he explored Neoclassical and serial (twelve-tone) techniques.
Describe the life of Arnold Schoenberg
Austrian composer, conductor, teacher, artist.largely self taught composer.
Describe the music of Arnold Schoenberg
Early works reflect post-Wagnerian RomanticismSecond period reflects Atonal-Expressionism o Pierrot lunaireThird period reflects the creation of the 12-tone method and his time in AmericaPierrot Lunaire:Tale of a sad clown obsessed with the moonIn Pierrot lunaire, Schoenberg joins the text and music through the vocal technique of Sprechstimme (spoken voice), accompanied by highly disjunct instrumental lines (Klangfarbenmelodie).
Describe the life and music of Bella Bartok
He was a Hungarian composer, who sought to end the domination of the German musical cultureHe turned folk music into a 21st century idiomHe collected traditional songs and dances from his native land, and incorporated many of these elements into his compositions
How was the music in Late-Nineteenth-Century America?
Strong tradition of devotional music (spirituals and gospel hymns)Music publications were largely devotional, “white spirituals” * Shape-note system designed for easy reading of musicParlor and minstrel songs of Stephen Foster were popular and remain popularBy the Civil War era, the military marched to the sounds of brass groupsBandmaster John Phillip Sousa promoted and fostered the American wind band * Conducted the U.S.
Marine Band and formed the group “Sousa’s Band” * Wrote over 130 marches for band, dance music, and operettas * Sousa created a national music for the U.S. — stripes forever
Describe the life and music of Aaron Copland
He was an American composer, born in Brooklyn. Incorporated jazz idioms in his works.Experimented in Neoclassicism and 12-tone composition.
Composed piano pieces, orchestral works, ballets, film scores.
Describe jazz as a 20th-century American musical style
* Drew from African traditions and traditions from the West, began in New Orleans * Roots of jazz are in West African music (call-and-response), and 19th-century African-American ceremonial and work songs * Ragtime, a precursor to jazz, developed from African-American piano style characterized by syncopated rhythms and sectional forms
Describe Scott Joplin and the Ragtime
He was the American composer and the “The king of ragtime”Joplin and ragtime gained notice during a performance at the 1893 World Exposition (Chicago)Active in New York as teacher, composer, performerCreated a new type of song known as ragtime, which stands for ragged rhythm. Ragged rhythm is syncopation. Listen to the Maple Leaf Rag * Regular sectional form * Four strains, each repeated * Syncopated rhythms
Describe Blues and New Orleans Jazz
Blues: an American form of folk music based on a simple, repetitive, poetic-musical structureThe term refers to a mood as well as harmonic progression Vocal style derived from work songs The art of improvisation is critical in blues
Describe Louie Armstrong and early jazz
American musician (cornet and trumpet) and great improviserRecording of Heebie Jeebies introduced scat singing (syllables without literal meaning)Jazz chorus is a single statement of a melodic-harmonic pattern o Armstrong introduced solo rather than ensemble chorusesStyle influenced generations of musicians
Describe Billie Holiday
American blues and jazz singer * Nickname “Lady Day”Sang with the top jazz musicians of her dayLife deteriorated into drug and alcohol abuseDied at 44 from cirrhosis of the liverRecognizable singing style
Describe Bessie Smith
She was known as “the Empress of Blues” and for Strange Fruit Listen to Strange Fruit
Describe Duke Ellington and the Big Band Era
American composer, pianist, orchestrator, and big-band leader of an all black swing band o Advent of big band brought a need for arranged (written-down) musicEllington was a brilliant orchestrator o His orchestral palette included a larger ensembleOne of the Ellington Orchestra’s most popular tunes was Take the A Train
Describe George Gershwin and his music
George Gershwin (1898-1937) mastered the fusion of jazz and classical styles * Accomplished pianist and songwriter * Tin Pan Alley pianistListen to Rhapsody in Blue
Describe Leonard and his music
American composer and conductorAppointed assistant conductor of the New York Philharmonic at age 25At 40, became first American-born and youngest conductor of NY PhilharmonicHis music combines the worlds of serious and popular music * Composed symphonic and choral music, film music, and musical theater worksIn West Side Story, Bernstein attempted a union of jazz with musical theater
Describe West Side Story
Based on the story of Romeo and JulietSet among street gangs of New York City * Jets vs. Puerto Rican rivals, the SharksInfluence of Latin dance music and jazz
Describe Rock and Roll
* Origins in rhythm and blues, country-western, pop music, and gospel* Crossed racial lines: white singers drew from black music; African-Americans got the attention of white audiences* In the 1960s a bevy of teen idols emerged o At the same time, black America turned to soul and Motown* The Beatles took America by storm in the early 1960s o Later Beatles music reflected non-Western musical influence (India) o The Beatles’ success inspired the British Invasion (the Rolling Stones)* California groups raised the standard for studio production (the Beach Boys) * Folk rock also emerged in California, groups influenced by Bob Dylan and Joan Baez * Eclectic musical styles emerged: acid rock (the Doors, Jimi Hendrix) * Culminating event for rock music in the 1960s was Woodstock Festival in 1969 * Grateful Dead and Pink Floyd spawned a new generation of improvisational bands and trance music
Describe the Javanese Gamelan
Composer John Cage invented the prepared piano to simulate the sound of the Javanese gamelan orchestra. The gamelan is an ensemble of metallic percussion instruments played in Indonesia (on the islands of Java and Bali, in particular).
* Music is played from memory, passed as an oral tradition * Played for ritual ceremonies
What was the role of music in film?
* The most important function of music in film is to set a mood * Supplying music that contradicts what is seen creates irony o Technique known as running counter to the action * There are two principal types of music in a film o Underscoring: comes from an unseen source, often an invisible orchestra o Source music: functions as a part of the drama, from a logical source * Leitmotifs create musical unity within the context of the drama
Describe John Williams
Star Wars (1977) revolutionized the industry in terms of visual and aural effectsThe score by John Williams was immensely popular * Incorporated full symphony orchestra, use of leitmotifsJohn Williams (b. 1932) * Wrote for television in the 1950s and 1960s * Began to compose for films in the 1960s * 1970s successes o Star Wars, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman * 1980s, 1990s, and the present: o Indiana Jones, Jurassic Park, Harry Potter films, Munich
Describe the Romantic Symphony Form
# First movement: generally follows basic sonata-allegro form, may have a slow introduction, often features a long, expressive development section# Second movement: tends to be slower and more lyrical, but ranges in mood, often a loose ternary form# Third movement: often an energetic scherzo, but can vary in tempo and mood * Sometimes the scherzo is the second in the cycle# Fourth movement: designed to balance the first movement in scope and drama, form varies, tends to close with note of triumph or pathos