Music Exam 3 Romantic period

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Last updated: December 11, 2019

Nationalism
inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composers homeland; characteristic of romantic music.

Exoticism
Use of Melodies, rhythms, or instruments that suggest foreign lands; common in romantic music

Program
Explanatory comments specifying the story, scene, or idea associated with program music.

Chromatic harmony
Use of chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scale but included in the chromatic scale often found in romantic music

Rubato
Slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo to intensify the expression of the music, often used in romantic music

Thematic transformation
alteration of the charcter of a theme by means of changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm, when it returns in a later movement or section; often found in romantic music.

Postlude
Concluding section; the section at the end of an art song that sums up its mood, played by the piano or orchestra, without the voice

Strophic Form
Vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem

Through – Composed form
Vocal form in which there is new music for each stanza of a poem

Modified strophic form
Form in which two or more stanzas of poetry are set to the same music while other stanzas have new music; found in art songs of the romantic period

Absolute music
Instrumental music having no intended association with a story, poem, idea, or scene; non program music

Idee fixe
single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea.

Program Music
Instrumental music asociated with a story, poem, idea, or scene, often found in the romantic period

Symphony
Orchestral composition, Usually in four movements, typically lasting between 20 and 45 minutes, exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the orchestra

Opera
Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large – scale composition employing vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery

Concerto
Extended composition for instrumental soloist and orchestra, usually in three movements 1. fast 2. slow 3.

fast

Art Song
setting of a poem for solo voice and piano, translating the poem’s mood and imagery into music, common in the romantic period

Song cycle
Group of art songs unified by a story line that runs through their poems, or by musical ideas linking the songs; often found in romantic music

Romance
A term often used during the nineteenth century for short, lyrical pieces for piano

Nocturne
In French, night piece; a composition, usually slow, lyrical, and intimate in character, often for piano solo.

Etude
In french, study; a piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties

Polonaise
composition in triple meter with a stately character, often for piano solo; originally a polish court dance

Symphonic Poem (Tone Poem)
Programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form or an original, irregular form

Program Symphony
Symphony related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each movement usually has a descriptive title; often found in romantic music

Concert Overture
Independent composition for orchestra in one movement, usually in sonata form, often found in the romantic period

Incidental music
music intended to be performed before and during a play, setting the mood for the drama.

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