Music Exam: Romantic Era

Topics: ArtConcerts

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Last updated: December 11, 2019

nationalism
Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composer’s homeland; characteristic of romantic music

exoticism
Use of melodies, rhythms, or instruments that suggest foreign lands

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rubato
Constant change in tempo fast -> slow

strophic
Vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem

through composed
different melody/new music for every stanza

Absolue music
instrumental music having no intended association with a story, poem, idea or scene; non program music

Ideé Fixed
Berlioz, used in Symphony FantastiqueFixed idea

Leitmotif
Wagner (Ring Cycle)Gives listener a clue as to what the character is doing/thinking/feelingMusic tells the story through theme, even w/o libretto if you had some idea of what it was about, you could know what was happening

Lieder
German art song

Art song
Erlking, piano just as important as singingVoice accompanied by pianoSetting of a poem for solo voice and piano, translating the poem’s mood and imagery into music

Song cycle
Schubert’s Winterreise and Schumann’s Dizhtelicbe (most performed and well known song cycle)Group of art songsHave some common theme (poem, same key, etc)attributed to Schubert

4 kinds of piano pieces
Romance: Short, lyrical for pianoNocturne: Short, lyrical night pieceEtude: Purpose is to work on technical skills (study pc)Polonaise: Polish processional stately dance

Orchestra Pieces
Symphonic PoemConcert Overture: meant to be played by itself, sonata form, absolute music (Romeo and Juliet, 1812, William Tell)Incidental MusicProgram Symphony: Berlioz (Symphony Fantastique)Program Music: Wider Category- about something, type of instrumental music for specific poem/idea/theme/story/pictures

Schubert
1st and most prolific writer of German songs/Art songs (over 600), Erlking (Lieder/Art Song) Die WinterreiseWrote songs and symphoniesResponsible for Art Songs, made living writing songsAverage guy, not virtuoso

Schumann
Songs and piano music. “Carnival” (21 piano pcs. about masked ball)- For solo pianoMarried to piano composer Clara Wieck Schumann (virtuosic pianist, composer)Injured hands from using device he inventedFriends with BrahmsSuicide after he ruined hands from his device

Chopin
Piano composerPolishNationalisticwrote ONLY for piano (only composer to do that)Wrote Etudes and nocturnesPolonaise: Stately character, often for piano solo, originally Polish court dancePoloniase, Nocturne, Etude

Liszt
HungaryIncomparable piano skills, flamboyant and flashy, women loved himResponsible for giving piano popularity

Berlioz
FrenchIdeé Fixe (fixed idea), used in Symphony FantastiqueWrote book: Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration (taught composers how to write music for different instruments)

Tchaikovsky
RussianNutcracker, Swan Lake1st composer to make it “cool” to write for ballet, and also find success in that (wrote for Russian Ballet)Conducted the 1st concert ever at Carnegie HallRomeo and Juliet (concert overture), 1812, William Tell

Dvorak
CzechoslovakianNew World Symphony (#9)1st composer to come to U.S.

, taught at UCLAHeavily influenced by Nationalism and ExoticismTaught Americans to be nationalistic

Brahms
Most Classical in styleGermanIn love with Clara (Schumann’s wife)Idealized Mozart and Beethoven music

Verdi
ItalianHuge fan of Shakespeare, influenced his work (Otello, Falstaff)Rigoletto (Aria: La Donna E Mobile/ Woman is Fickle)

Puccini
Madame Butterfly (exoticism): Asian culture, story about GeishaLa BohemeItalian

Wagner
GermanLARGE Operas (required huge orchestras and singers w/ HUGE voices, specially trained)Added three brass instruments to his orchestraDer Ring Des Nibelungen (Ring Cycle), Die Walküre (Ride of the Valkyries)

Instruments added during Romantic Era
PiccoloEnglish HornE Flat & Bass ClarinetContra BassoonTubaMORE percussion: Cymbals, bass drum, snare drum, harp, chimes

Enharmonic
2 notes that have same sound (to, two, too). C# is also D flat

Erlking
SchubertMan riding horse w/ sick child, death gods calling to child Most famous pc from SchubertArt song

Music and Society
Large urban class plays and hears music (wanted to)Resulted in numerous orchestras/music companies/groupsSubscription concerts (pay fee to see all performances)Public captivated by virtuoso performersConservatories in Europe and U.S.

Women seeing greater roles/less castratosMusic making in the homePiano became regular fixtures in middle and upper class homes for entertainment and education (children)

Romantic Era
Composers “gave in” to music, not so formal/stuffyStart to work freelance, writing for themselves, what they wanted to write (vs. writing for nobility/aristocracy)Orchestra expandedMore and more complexityStarts to mess w/ sonata form, what was expected in music

Symphony Fantastique
Berlioz**Program Symphony/Music**Young musician hopelessly in love tries to kill himself w/ opium, but just puts him to sleep w/ strange dreams and visionsIdeé Fixe is the beloved’s tune/songWitches Sabbath (5th movement of symphony); protagonist enters hell, finds witches doing ritualistic dance

Smetana
Father of Czech music/composersInfluenced by Nationalism (used folk songs from homeland)Wrote about Czechoslovakia”The Moldau”

The Moldau
Smetana2nd in set of 6 symphonic tune poemsEach poem depicts an aspect of Czech countrysideMoldau is tune poem that depicts a river running its course*Program Music**

Incidental Music
Music intended to be performed before and during a play, setting the mood for the drama

Piano keys
C,D,E,F,G,A,B,C starts at white key before the two black keys

Flats
B,E,A,D,G,C,For: BEAD, Go Cougar Football

Sharps
Backwards of flats: FCGDAEB

Bass clef notes
Always, Ciss, Every, GirlGood, Boys, Do, Fun, Activities

Treble clef notes
FACEEvery, Good, Boy, Does, Fine

wagners brass
bass trumpet, wagner tuba, contra bass trombone

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