Music History Study Guide

The Industrial Revolution started during the late eighteenth century in which country?

The first modern conservatory, established in 1795 as part of a new national system of education designed to offer education to all citizens based on merit rather than class, was in what city?

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Late Period
A frequent use of imitative counterpoint, especially fugue, is a characteristic of which period (early/middle/late) in Beethoven’s life?

Beethoven’s music takes on a new, more ambitious style because of his growing reputation and the increasing support of patrons and publishers beginning around what time?

According to Beethoven, the slow movement of the following quartet of Op. 18 (N1/3/4/6) was inspired by the burial vault scene of Romeo and Juliet:

Symphony N6 in F Major
What is the symphony that is titled Pastoral, which also contains five movements, each suggesting a scene of life in the country?

Missa solemnis
What is the composition that was initially intended to be performed at the elevation of Archduke Rudolph to archbishop of Olmütz in 1820?

Joseph Haydn
While in Vienna, Beethoven studied counterpoint with whom?

Beethoven’s only opera is:

An die ferne Geliebte
What is the name of the Beethoven composition that inaugurated the genre of the song cycle?

Beethoven’s first symphony premiered in what year?

Symphony N9 in D Major
Which of Beethoven’s symphonies employs the use of solo voices and choruses in its finale?

Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony was first performed in the May of what year?

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller
The poem employed in the finale of of Beethoven’s ninth was written by whom?

Ludwig von Beethoven
This composer was the first musician to make a living almost exclusively through composition.

A diverse series of variations that preserve basic elements of the theme rather than the theme in its entirety
What variation technique is characteristic of Beethoven’s late period?

Beethoven’s first six string quartets were published in 1800 as what (O3/9/13/18)?

E. T. A.


Referring to performing Beethoven’s music, which critic said, “The true artist lives only in the work that he has understood as the composer meant it and that he then performs.”?

With a slow introduction
The first movement of Beethoven’s Op. 13 is unusual for a sonata because it begins..


Beginning in his middle period, Beethoven’s suggest that music should be conceived as a…

Symphony N3
What is the name of the work that was composed in 1803-1804 that also exemplifies Beethoven’s new compositional approach during his middle period?

Count Andrey Razumovsky
The three quartets of Op. 59 are dedicated to:

Symphony N3
Beethoven originally named this symphony “Bonaparte” in honor of Napoleon, whom he admired as a hero of the French Republic.

Late Period
An extended use of musical contrast is characteristic of which period (early/middle/late) of Beethoven’s life?

Piano trio
Beethoven’s earliest works to bear an opus number were in what genre?

A typical composer and musician of the Romantic era was financially supported by the:

Specialize on one instrument
Performers such as Paganini were expected to:

In the mid-nineteenth century, this instrument became the center of music making in the home.

Entertain family and friends
For most women during the nineteenth century, music was an accomplishment meant to:

A rise in amateur music-making.
The new musical idiom of the early nineteenth century was largely influenced by

Instrumental music
According to E. T. A.

Hoffman and other nineteenth-century writers, the ideal romantic art was:

Of the three distinctions of instrumental music (absolute/characteristic/program) formulated during the Romantic era, this one was the only one that was a new concept in the nineteenth century.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
This writer suggested an organic approach to composition, arguing that a composition would be unified if all its parts were derived from a common source, just as all the parts of a plant are adaptations of the same basic shape.

German lied
The most influential and prestigious repertoire of the nineteenth-century song was the:

In the late eighteenth century, German poets cultivated this poetic form, resulting in an expansion of both the form and emotional content of German song.

Ludwig von Beethoven
This composer introduced the concept of a song cycle in which all songs are performed in order as movements of larger vocal work.

Franz Schubert
This composer wrote over six hundred Lieder, many of which were performed by friends in home concerts.

This song cycle by Schubert is based on twenty-four poems by Wilhelm Muller that express a lover’s nostalgia when revisiting the haunts of a failed summer romance in the winter:

Robert Schumann
This composer and music critic founded and served as the editor of the Leipzig Neue Zeitschrift für Music:

Robert Schumann
This composer wrote over 120 songs in 1840, which he/she referred to as his/her “year of song”.

Home! Sweet Home!
The most famous drawing-room ballad and perhaps the best-known song of the nineteenth century was:

Fryderyk Chopin
This composer wrote almost exclusively for piano.

John Field
The invention of nocturne is credited to:

Stephen Foster
The first American composer to earn a living solely as a composer was:

Felix Mendelssohn
This composer’s Seven Character Pieces, published in 1727, helped to introduce the term and define the genre:

Fanny Hensel
Das Jahr, a series of character pieces on the twelve months inspired by an extended trip to Italy, was composed by:

Character pieces
The majority of Robert Schumann’s keyboard compositions are:

Fryderyk Chopin
The concert etude is credited to:

Franz Liszt
This composer and performer was the foremost piano virtuoso of his time.

A form that was believed to be equal to words, embodying the person speaking.
Schubert’s best compositional method to writing Lieder was melody, accompaniment, harmony, and..


By the end of the nineteenth century, the standard orchestra had as many as ___ players.

A conductor
By the end of the nineteenth century, orchestras were typically led by:

Louis Spohr
This composer and conductor introduced the technique of conducting with a baton.

Music by composers of past generations
Throughout the nineteenth century, concert repertoire increasingly included:

Franz Schubert
This composer pioneered a new style of orchestral composition that maintained the outward form of the classical symphony while infusing it with content derived from the new romantic style developed in Lieder and piano compositions:

Hector Berlioz
Treatise on Instrumentation and Orchestration, often considered the bible on nineteenth-century orchestration, was penned by who?

Schubert’s first attempt at a large-scale symphonic work resulted in the _____ Symphony.

In the ____ symphony, Schubert blends romantic lyricism and Beethovenian drama within an extended classical form:

Hector Berlioz
This composer was among the first to make a career of orchestral conducting.

Symphonie fantastique
This composition, subtitled “Episode in the Life of an Artist,” was accompanied during performance with an autobiographical program:

Romeo and Juliet
Berlioz referred to this composition as a “dramatic symphony”.

Felix Mendelssohn
This composer captured the landscapes of his travels in the Italian and Scottish symphonies.

What year is considered Schubert’s “symphony year”?

Robert Schumann
This composer is credited with conceiving the symphony as an integrated, organically-unified cycle, rather than as a composition with four to five distinct movements:

Dramatic pieces of concert music
Schubert’s late chamber works were conceived as:

String Quintet in C Major
This quintet is often considered Schubert’s chamber music masterpiece:

Octet for strings, O20
This chamber work, often recognized as Mendelssohn’s earliest masterpiece, is noted for its symphonic conception, independent treatment of all instruments, and demanding string techniques:

Which year is considered Schumann’s “chamber music year”?

Robert Schumann
In his critical writings, this composer argued that string quartets should resemble a four-way conversation:

Robert Schumann
This composer is credited with introducing a new, more polyphonic approach to chamber music.

Piano Trio in D minor
This composition by Fanny Hensel was the only example of her chamber music published during the nineteenth century.

George Frideric Handel
The first choral festivals, beginning in 1759, typically centered on the music of which composer?

This oratorio was composed specifically for a choral festival.

Dmitri Bortnyansky
This composer is credited with introducing a new style of Russian choral music, inspired by the modal chants of Orthodox liturgy.

Lowell Mason
This composer is credited with establishing the American tradition of music education in schools.

An impresario who produced operas as a means of profiting from the popularity of musical theater during the nineteenth century
During the first half of the nineteenth century, opera theaters were primarily run by:

By the mid-nineteenth century, what figures (composers/librettists/singers/instrumentalists) became the key draw for audiences of opera productions?

This composer was the most popular and influential opera composer of the early nineteenth century.

In Rossini’s operas, the most important element is the:

This composer is credited with developing a scene structure that distributed the story throughout an act rather than confining the unfolding of the plot to the recitative.

Guillaume Tell
The overture from what Rossini opera is unique because it consists of four sections that present a series of scenes taken from the opera?

This composer is known for his long, sweeping, highly embellished, and intensely emotional melodies.

Lucia di Lammermoor, an opera based on a novel by Sir Walter Scott, was composed by whom?

Middle class
Grand opera was designed to appeal to the desires of the:

La muette de Portici
A performance in Brussels of this opera sparked a riot that ultimately led to Belgium’s independence.

Eugene Scribe
This librettist is credited with creating the mix of formality, spectacle, and historical, political, or religious themes that define grand opera.

This composer, credited with being a leader in the grand opera style, utilized every available technique to dramatize the action and please the public.

Marie Taglioni
A newly-developed style of ballet in the nineteenth century in which dancers moved with lightness, grace, and freedom was introduced by who?

Der Freischutz
This opera, often credited with establishing German Romantic Opera, is unique because it places ordinary people center stage singing about their concerns, fears, and loves.

The role of the orchestra in nineteenth-century German opera is best described as:

A genre of musical theater that combined spoken dialogue with background music was referred to as:

An association of motives and keys with particular characters or events is characteristic of whose operas?

Mikhail Glinka
The first Russian composer recognized both in Russia and internationally as an equal of his Western contemporaries was:

A Life for the Tsar
The first Russian opera to be sung throughout was:

William Henry Fry
Lenora, the first staged opera by an American composer, was composed by whom?

Minstrel theater
The most popular form of musical theater in the Unites States from the 1830s to the 1870s was:

Jump Jim Crow
The first American piece to find success overseas was:

Virginia Minstrels
The first full-scale minstrel show consisting of dialogue, songs, banjo and fiddle playing, and dances was performed in 1843 by the:

French and Italian operas performed in their original languages
Between 1819 and 1866, New Orleans’ Théâtre d’Orléans primarily performed:

Dan Emmett
The well-known minstrel song “Dixie” was written by:

Edvard Grieg
This composer promoted the new rise in nationalistic music when he insisted “the spirit of my native land, which has long found a voice in the traditional songs of its people, is a living presence in all I give forth.”

Create a sense of difference that combined strangeness and allure
For many composers, the most important goal of composing music associated with foreign lands or other nations was to :

This composer believed that poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music work together to form what he referred to as a Gesamtkunstwerk.

Serve dramatic expression
For Richard Wagner, the function of music was to:

Ludwig van Beethoven
Wagner saw himself as the true successor of:

Where was Wagner’s Ring Cycle first performed in its entirety?

Wagner modeled the poetry for his libretto on the style of the following medieval poem:

Principle themes
Wagner referred to reoccurring themes associated with specific characters, things, events, or emotions as the work’s:

The orchestra
In Wagner’s operas, the introduction of a leitmotive is most commonly sounded by:

Arthur Schopenhauer
Beginning in the late 1850s, Wagner’s operas were influenced by this philosopher:

This composer’s music has been called the epitome of Romantic drama and passion.

The Tristan chord is spelled as follows:

Va pensiero, a chorus from this Verdi opera, became an emblem of Italian opposition to foreign oppression:

La traviata
One of the earliest tragic operas to be set in the present rather than the historical past was Verdi’s:

Everyday people
The most common subject matter of verismo was:

Manon Lescaut
This Puccini opera is credited with catapulting him to international fame.

Leo Delibes
The leading ballet composer of the later nineteenth century was:

The most famous lyric opera, as well as the most frequently performed opera in the last third of the nineteenth century, was:

This opera illustrates the nineteenth-century fascination with exoticism by its inclusion of three “authentic” Spanish melodies.

Jacques Offenbach
Opéra bouffe, a new genre which emerged in the 1850s, was founded by

The most prominent Russian composer of the nineteenth century was:

Mily Balakirev
This composer was the leader of the Russian Five and an informal teacher to others in the circle.

New York
Where did W. S.

Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan’s operetta Pirates of Penzance premiere?

The most popular theatrical entertainment in the United States until the advent of the talking film in the 1920s was:

The mid-nineteenth century
When did an interest in historical music, exemplified by the establishment of a permanent classical repertoire and the creation of academic fields to study it, become evident?

The first complete edition of Johann Sebastian Bach’s works began in what year?

Ludwig van Beethoven
Composers such as Wagner and Liszt saw the legacy of this composer as providing a break in historical traditions by pointing toward a new direction in composition that combined music with words or a program.

Brahms and Wagner
In German-speaking lands, the dispute between tradition and innovation and between absolute and program music was polarized around which two composers?

German composers
The emerging classical repertoire of the nineteenth century was centered around:

Nationalistic elements
During the nineteenth century, these musical elements were included in order to validate the composer and authenticate the musical composition.

Johann Strauss
This composer specialized in waltzes, gallops, and other dances to be performed at balls and at open-air concerts.

This composer catered to audiences whose tastes were formed by the classical masterpieces by composing works that borrowed from previous genres yet contained elements of the new romantic style.

Ludwig van Beethoven
Brahms’s First Symphony, completed in 1876, deliberately invoked the compositional techniques of whom?

Robert Schumann
This composer and critic praised Brahms in print, which helped launch his career and secure a publisher.

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