Music pt 4 Romantic period

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Last updated: November 26, 2019

Nationalism
Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composers homeland ;characteristic of romantic music

Program music
Instrumental music associated with a story,poem, idea, or scene, often found in the romantic period

Rubato
Slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo to intensify the expression of the music, often used in romantic music

Exoticism
Use of melodies,rhythms, or instruments that suggest foreign lands. Common in romantic music

Chromatic harmony
Use of chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scale but included in the chromatic scale (which has twelve tones);often found in romantic music

Thematic transformation
Alteration of the character of the theme by means of changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm, when it returns in a later movement or section; often found in romantic music

Art song
Setting of a poem for solo voice and piano, translating the poems mood and imagery into music, common in the romantic periodWas performed in concert halls but written for intimate settings

Through-composed form
New music for each stanzaVocal form in which there is new music for each stanza of a poem

Postlude
Concluding section; the section at the end of an art song that sums up the mood, played by the piano or orchestra, without the voice.

Strophic form
Vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem.

Modified strophic form
Form in which two or more stanzas of poetry are set to the same music while other stanzas have new music; found in art songs of the romantic period

Song cycle
Group of art songs unified by a story line that runs through their poems, or by musical ideas linking the songs; often found in romantic music

Romance
A term often used during the 19th century for short, lyrical pieces for piano.

Nocturne
In French, night piece; a composition, usually slow, lyrical, and intimate in character, often for piano solo

Etude
In French, study; a piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties

Polonaise
Composition in triple meter with a stately character, often for piano solo; originally a Polish court dance

Symphonic poem ( tone poem)
Programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form ( such as sonata or rondo) or an original, irregular form.

Tone poem
Same as symphonic poem

Program
Explanatory comments specifying the story, scene, or idea associated with program music

Absolute music
Nonprogram musicInstrumental music having no intended association with a story, poem, idea, or scene

Program symphony
Composition in several movements; each movement has a descriptive title- symphony related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each move,net usually has a descriptive title; often found in romantic music

Concert overture
Independent composition for orchestra in one movement, usually in sonata form, often found in the romantic period

Incidental music
Music intended to be performed before and during a play, setting the mood for the drama

Ideé fixe
Single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea.

Leitmotif
Short musical idea associated with a person, object, or thought, characteristic of the operas of Wagner

Lied
Song with German text

Composers of the romantic period
Franz SchubertRobert SchumannClara Wieck SchumannFrederic ChopinFrank LisztFelix MendelssohnHector BerliozPeter I. TchaikovskyBedrich SmetanaAntonin Dvorák Johannes BrahmsGiuseppe VerdiGiacomo Puccini Richard Wagner

National characteristics used in romantic music
Individuality of style/ self expression Nationalism and exoticismFocus on feelings and natureGreater ranges of tone color, dynamics, and pitch

Size and changes to symphony
Romantic orchestra was larger and more varied in tone color than the classical orchestra and had close to 100 players The brass, woodwind, and percussion sections took on a more active role

Who wrote the Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration and what was its significance?
Hector Berlioz wrote it and it signifies the importance of orchestration

What are the changes to the piano?
Piano improved to an expanded keyboardCast iron frame was introduced to hold the strings under greater tension and the hammers were covered with feltPianos tone became more ” singing” Range was also extendedDamper pedal

What historical events were taking place that influenced romantic music?
French Revolution and Napoleonic wars

Which composers were also virtuoso instrumentalists?
Franz Liszt, Clara Schumann

What two composers earned an income as music critics?
Robert Schumann and Franz Liszt

German composers favored the poetry of what two poets?
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe and Heinrich Heine were favored poets

Schubert wrote how many songs?
He wrote 600 songs

Who founded the New Journal of Music?
Robert Schumann

What writer greatly inspired Liszt?
Goethe and DanteWomen writers: countess Marie d Agoult and princess Caroline sayn Wittgenstein

Mendelssohn composed what forms and rekindled an interest in what composer?
He used classical formsRekindled interest in Bach’s music

High point in Mendelssohn’s career?
Performance of his oratorio Elijah

Mendelssohn did not write in what musical form ?
He did all musical forms except opera

Who developed the symphonic poem?
Franz Liszt developed this

What are the characteristics of Berlioz’s Fantastic symphony?
Five movement program symphonyRomantic manifestoReflect his passion for actress Harriet SmithsonHas idée fixe Depiction of the weird and diabolical

What is the Russian five?
Five young me who formed a true national schoolBalakirev, Cui, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky

Who was the founder of Czech national music?
Smetana was the founder of this

First american concert pianist
Louis Moreau Gottschalk

Liszt was influenced by what other artist/composer?
Paganini influenced him

Leading nationalist composer in the US
Louis Moreau Gottschalk

Smetana’s most popular opera Composed what work depicting Bohemia’s main river
His most famous opera was The Bartered BrideComposed The Moldau

What was Dvorák’s music prompted by?
Smetana, Czech national music, spirit of bohemian folk song and dance prompted him

Who is Nadezhda Von Meck?
Tchaikovsky’s wealthy benefactress who gave him an annuity that allowed him to quit his conservatory position and devote himself to composition

What works did Tchaikovsky compose?
Symphonies no. 4 5 & 6Piano concerto no. 1 in B flat minorA violin concerto Overture fantasy Romeo and Juliet Swan lake , sleeping beautyOperas: March slave and overture 1812

Brahms artistic and personal life was influenced by who?Composed in all forms except..

.?His musical characteristics ?

– influenced by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven – composed in all forms except opera- used classical forms, used contrasting patterns and syncopationsThe use of “2 against 3”. Rich dark tone colors, instruments with mellow tone , his music has a autumnal feeling and a lyrical warmth

What was Verdi’s greatest success and what operas did he compose?
Falstaff- greatest final worksGreatest successes were Oberto and NabuccoHis operas symbolized Italian independence Rigoletto, Il Trovatore, and La TraviataHis last three were Aïda, Otello, and Falstaff

Puccini’s first successful opera? And what operas did he compose?
– his first successful opera was Manon Lascaut- his other operas were, La Boheme, Tosca, and Madame ButterflyHe died before completing his last opera, Turandot

Which opera is an example of verismo?
Tosca is an example of this

Verismo
Realism- the quality of being true to life

Which Puccini operas exhibit exoticism?
Madame Butterfly exhibits this

What is the significance of the Wagner opera house ?
His opera house in, Bayreuth, Germany, was solely for performance of his music dramas

Which composer influenced Wagner ?
Beethoven influenced him

Operas composed by Wagner
Rienzi, – successTristan and Isolde, and Tannhauser – failures Librettos to Der Ring des Nihelungen

Wagner’s last opera
Parsifal

Libretto to The Ring by Wagner
Cycle of 4 dramasRepresents his view on 19th century society

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