Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composers homeland ;characteristic of romantic music
Instrumental music associated with a story,poem, idea, or scene, often found in the romantic period
Slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo to intensify the expression of the music, often used in romantic music
Use of melodies,rhythms, or instruments that suggest foreign lands. Common in romantic music
Use of chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scale but included in the chromatic scale (which has twelve tones);often found in romantic music
Alteration of the character of the theme by means of changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm, when it returns in a later movement or section; often found in romantic music
Setting of a poem for solo voice and piano, translating the poems mood and imagery into music, common in the romantic periodWas performed in concert halls but written for intimate settings
New music for each stanzaVocal form in which there is new music for each stanza of a poem
Concluding section; the section at the end of an art song that sums up the mood, played by the piano or orchestra, without the voice.
Vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem.
Modified strophic form
Form in which two or more stanzas of poetry are set to the same music while other stanzas have new music; found in art songs of the romantic period
Group of art songs unified by a story line that runs through their poems, or by musical ideas linking the songs; often found in romantic music
A term often used during the 19th century for short, lyrical pieces for piano.
In French, night piece; a composition, usually slow, lyrical, and intimate in character, often for piano solo
In French, study; a piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties
Composition in triple meter with a stately character, often for piano solo; originally a Polish court dance
Symphonic poem ( tone poem)
Programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form ( such as sonata or rondo) or an original, irregular form.
Same as symphonic poem
Explanatory comments specifying the story, scene, or idea associated with program music
Nonprogram musicInstrumental music having no intended association with a story, poem, idea, or scene
Composition in several movements; each movement has a descriptive title- symphony related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each move,net usually has a descriptive title; often found in romantic music
Independent composition for orchestra in one movement, usually in sonata form, often found in the romantic period
Music intended to be performed before and during a play, setting the mood for the drama
Single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea.
Short musical idea associated with a person, object, or thought, characteristic of the operas of Wagner
Song with German text
Composers of the romantic period
Franz SchubertRobert SchumannClara Wieck SchumannFrederic ChopinFrank LisztFelix MendelssohnHector BerliozPeter I. TchaikovskyBedrich SmetanaAntonin Dvorák Johannes BrahmsGiuseppe VerdiGiacomo Puccini Richard Wagner
National characteristics used in romantic music
Individuality of style/ self expression Nationalism and exoticismFocus on feelings and natureGreater ranges of tone color, dynamics, and pitch
Size and changes to symphony
Romantic orchestra was larger and more varied in tone color than the classical orchestra and had close to 100 players The brass, woodwind, and percussion sections took on a more active role
Who wrote the Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration and what was its significance?
Hector Berlioz wrote it and it signifies the importance of orchestration
What are the changes to the piano?
Piano improved to an expanded keyboardCast iron frame was introduced to hold the strings under greater tension and the hammers were covered with feltPianos tone became more ” singing” Range was also extendedDamper pedal
What historical events were taking place that influenced romantic music?
French Revolution and Napoleonic wars
Which composers were also virtuoso instrumentalists?
Franz Liszt, Clara Schumann
What two composers earned an income as music critics?
Robert Schumann and Franz Liszt
German composers favored the poetry of what two poets?
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe and Heinrich Heine were favored poets
Schubert wrote how many songs?
He wrote 600 songs
Who founded the New Journal of Music?
What writer greatly inspired Liszt?
Goethe and DanteWomen writers: countess Marie d Agoult and princess Caroline sayn Wittgenstein
Mendelssohn composed what forms and rekindled an interest in what composer?
He used classical formsRekindled interest in Bach’s music
High point in Mendelssohn’s career?
Performance of his oratorio Elijah
Mendelssohn did not write in what musical form ?
He did all musical forms except opera
Who developed the symphonic poem?
Franz Liszt developed this
What are the characteristics of Berlioz’s Fantastic symphony?
Five movement program symphonyRomantic manifestoReflect his passion for actress Harriet SmithsonHas idée fixe Depiction of the weird and diabolical
What is the Russian five?
Five young me who formed a true national schoolBalakirev, Cui, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky
Who was the founder of Czech national music?
Smetana was the founder of this
First american concert pianist
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
Liszt was influenced by what other artist/composer?
Paganini influenced him
Leading nationalist composer in the US
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
Smetana’s most popular opera Composed what work depicting Bohemia’s main river
His most famous opera was The Bartered BrideComposed The Moldau
What was Dvorák’s music prompted by?
Smetana, Czech national music, spirit of bohemian folk song and dance prompted him
Who is Nadezhda Von Meck?
Tchaikovsky’s wealthy benefactress who gave him an annuity that allowed him to quit his conservatory position and devote himself to composition
What works did Tchaikovsky compose?
Symphonies no. 4 5 & 6Piano concerto no. 1 in B flat minorA violin concerto Overture fantasy Romeo and Juliet Swan lake , sleeping beautyOperas: March slave and overture 1812
Brahms artistic and personal life was influenced by who?Composed in all forms except..
.?His musical characteristics ?
– influenced by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven – composed in all forms except opera- used classical forms, used contrasting patterns and syncopationsThe use of “2 against 3”. Rich dark tone colors, instruments with mellow tone , his music has a autumnal feeling and a lyrical warmth
What was Verdi’s greatest success and what operas did he compose?
Falstaff- greatest final worksGreatest successes were Oberto and NabuccoHis operas symbolized Italian independence Rigoletto, Il Trovatore, and La TraviataHis last three were Aïda, Otello, and Falstaff
Puccini’s first successful opera? And what operas did he compose?
– his first successful opera was Manon Lascaut- his other operas were, La Boheme, Tosca, and Madame ButterflyHe died before completing his last opera, Turandot
Which opera is an example of verismo?
Tosca is an example of this
Realism- the quality of being true to life
Which Puccini operas exhibit exoticism?
Madame Butterfly exhibits this
What is the significance of the Wagner opera house ?
His opera house in, Bayreuth, Germany, was solely for performance of his music dramas
Which composer influenced Wagner ?
Beethoven influenced him
Operas composed by Wagner
Rienzi, – successTristan and Isolde, and Tannhauser – failures Librettos to Der Ring des Nihelungen
Wagner’s last opera
Libretto to The Ring by Wagner
Cycle of 4 dramasRepresents his view on 19th century society