Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Maureen Briggs
Last updated: September 17, 2019
NativeAmerican did not find gaming something new to them in fact it was part of aculture to them. Chumash people had two different types of gaming. They had onethat was base of your skill and the other one was base of off risk.
One oftheir most known games was shinny or tikauwich. The game was similar to hockey;they had the same ideal. In early 1980 large scales wassponsored by tribal gaming. They started to try to proliferate several tribeslike Florida and California. Florida was one of the first built casinos bySeminole tribe.
Which has became very successful in bingo. State also tried toraise the revenues and threaten to close the operations down. So the tribe suedButterworth in 1979 and Cabazon in 1987.
The state couldn’t shut it downbecause it’s on their land. Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act .Theycontinue to challenge IGRA and were not satisfied and demanded more regulatorycontrol.
But the tribes continue to build infrastructure, schools, hospitalsand roads. State still was not please and demanded more revenue. So theycontinue to go to court. They have won some and also lost some. But overall thegaming industries are very enormous and still a rapidly growing industry.Indiangaming also was concerned about the legal and power of the federal and statesgovernments to regulate economic and social activity. Throughout the whole process federalpolicy towards Indians and tribal governments was inconsistent. In early 1990’sthe federal has adopted a goal of assimilation, and initiated efforts to endthe reservation and tribal government system.
With all the inconsistently itcaused problems with Indian social and economics. Reservation was slowly takingfrom them and it then became noticeable. Federal officially adopted a goal ofassimilation and initiated to end the reservation and tribal government system.They took so much it started to look empty.
This became very known as thetermination era. Indian children were getting taken from their home and movedto different schools. NativeAmerican tribe was not going to let it interfere with their success. Gaming hasbeen a blessing and became a part of a source for more opportunities not onlyfor adult future but also for children futures. After they have did that thatpoverty and high employment has became less and they don’t have to depend onthe government and they will have the entire essential to provide for theirtribe.
Indiangaming was divided in three classes for of regulation and licensing. Class I coversocial games solely for prizes or charity: class II includes bing, punch-boardsand monetary prizes: class III facilities includes casinos, high-stakes bingo,slot machines, and all other commercial forms of gambling. Jurisdictionclass I on Indian lands is exclusive and should not be subjects to provisionand class II gaming shall be provisions. Sovereignty as a retained rightbefore there was a United States.
The tribe had governed their selves andprovided for their people and negotiated treaties with other countries. Theyhad right to continue to provide for their tribe. That does mean that theirsovereign rights are retained and not granted. Coueur d’Alene tribe in Idaho wasthe first to open a gaming site in the U.S. they had the site to get test forall sort of issues and also made sure it regulated to be approve for state andfederal governments. It was hard for them to advertise because it was ban toadvertise in a lot of states.
Once Coalition of state attorneys found out theyhad immediately filed suit to block its operations on the site. It did not stopCoueur d’Alene to stop their company or from expanding. Under the provision ofthe act the states was required to have good faith negotiations.
IGRA has contacted a attorney nameRobert Nance. Nance is a experience in shared sovereignty. The Act wants thetribes to negotiate compacts with state to continue gaming. For any gamingoperation being continued they must the state input. State and Tribes mustshare their vision to share sovereignty over gaming conducted in Indian country. The IGRA has been under attack from membersof Congress and state governors seeking to rein in Indian gaming and increasingstate control. Donald Trump and other governors wasclaiming that Indian gaming was out of control and in dire need of restrictionand regulation.
Trump said, “it’s obvious that organize crime is rampant on theIndian reservations. This thing is going to blow sky high. It will be thebiggest scandal since AlCapone, and it will destroythe gaming industry.” Butthe FBI doesn’t not recalled and has not detected any major incursions byorganized crime. Trump also file lawsuit against Secretary of Interior BruceBabbit and Anthony Hope, the Chairman of the National Indian Gaming Commission.
The Act gives the tribes casino and unfair advantage over Trump.