American did not find gaming something new to them in fact it was part of a
culture to them. Chumash people had two different types of gaming. They had one
that was base of your skill and the other one was base of off risk. One of
their most known games was shinny or tikauwich. The game was similar to hockey;
they had the same ideal.
In early 1980 large scales was
sponsored by tribal gaming. They started to try to proliferate several tribes
like Florida and California. Florida was one of the first built casinos by
Seminole tribe. Which has became very successful in bingo. State also tried to
raise the revenues and threaten to close the operations down. So the tribe sued
Butterworth in 1979 and Cabazon in 1987. The state couldn’t shut it down
because it’s on their land. Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act .They
continue to challenge IGRA and were not satisfied and demanded more regulatory
control. But the tribes continue to build infrastructure, schools, hospitals
and roads. State still was not please and demanded more revenue. So they
continue to go to court. They have won some and also lost some. But overall the
gaming industries are very enormous and still a rapidly growing industry.
gaming also was concerned about the legal and power of the federal and states
governments to regulate economic and social activity.
Throughout the whole process federal
policy towards Indians and tribal governments was inconsistent. In early 1990’s
the federal has adopted a goal of assimilation, and initiated efforts to end
the reservation and tribal government system. With all the inconsistently it
caused problems with Indian social and economics. Reservation was slowly taking
from them and it then became noticeable. Federal officially adopted a goal of
assimilation and initiated to end the reservation and tribal government system.
They took so much it started to look empty. This became very known as the
termination era. Indian children were getting taken from their home and moved
to different schools.
American tribe was not going to let it interfere with their success. Gaming has
been a blessing and became a part of a source for more opportunities not only
for adult future but also for children futures. After they have did that that
poverty and high employment has became less and they don’t have to depend on
the government and they will have the entire essential to provide for their
gaming was divided in three classes for of regulation and licensing. Class I cover
social games solely for prizes or charity: class II includes bing, punch-boards
and monetary prizes: class III facilities includes casinos, high-stakes bingo,
slot machines, and all other commercial forms of gambling.
class I on Indian lands is exclusive and should not be subjects to provision
and class II gaming shall be provisions.
Sovereignty as a retained right
before there was a United States. The tribe had governed their selves and
provided for their people and negotiated treaties with other countries. They
had right to continue to provide for their tribe. That does mean that their
sovereign rights are retained and not granted.
Coueur d’Alene tribe in Idaho was
the first to open a gaming site in the U.S. they had the site to get test for
all sort of issues and also made sure it regulated to be approve for state and
federal governments. It was hard for them to advertise because it was ban to
advertise in a lot of states. Once Coalition of state attorneys found out they
had immediately filed suit to block its operations on the site. It did not stop
Coueur d’Alene to stop their company or from expanding. Under the provision of
the act the states was required to have good faith negotiations.
IGRA has contacted a attorney name
Robert Nance. Nance is a experience in shared sovereignty. The Act wants the
tribes to negotiate compacts with state to continue gaming. For any gaming
operation being continued they must the state input. State and Tribes must
share their vision to share sovereignty over gaming conducted in Indian country. The IGRA has been under attack from members
of Congress and state governors seeking to rein in Indian gaming and increasing
Donald Trump and other governors was
claiming that Indian gaming was out of control and in dire need of restriction
and regulation. Trump said, “it’s obvious that organize crime is rampant on the
Indian reservations. This thing is going to blow sky high. It will be the
biggest scandal since AlCapone, and it will destroythe gaming industry.” But
the FBI doesn’t not recalled and has not detected any major incursions by
organized crime. Trump also file lawsuit against Secretary of Interior Bruce
Babbit and Anthony Hope, the Chairman of the National Indian Gaming Commission.
The Act gives the tribes casino and unfair advantage over Trump.