Natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, typhoons, and hurricanesinflict serious damage and so seem to be bad for the economy. For firms,natural disasters destroy tangible assets such as buildings and equipment aswell as human capital and thereby deteriorate their production capacity. Theseadverse impacts may sometimes be fatal to the firms and result in them beingforced to close down.But the academic evidence on the economic impact of natural disasters ismixed. More than 9,000 people have lost their lives and more than 23,000are injured till date.
After shocks from these earthquakes have continued till date. 1. WATERRESOURCES1.1 DISRUPTIONOF SERVICES RELATED TO WASHThousands of peopleindisplacement sites / temporary tents were without basic water supply and sanitationservices immediately after the earthquake.Destruction of water system sacross 14districts left around 1.1 million people without access to protected water sources1,570 water supply systems sustained majordamage while 3,663 were partially damaged and 220,000 toilets were rendered unusablein the14 most affected districts.It could cost US$100 million to restore the WASHsector toits pre-earthquake status (UNICEF). 1.
2 DAMAGES TO HYDROPOWERThe earthquake is reported to have damaged 14 hydropower projectsresulting in 115MW Hydropower generation facilities being severely damages and 60MWpartially damaged (NPC).Other under construction hydropower projects of 1000MW capacitywere also affected.The overall energy sector sustained losses worth Rs18.75billion.1.3 CONTAMINATION OF WATER BODIESDecaying bodies of the deceased humans and animals, their masscremation, ,septic failure, and cross-contamination of the sewer lines with thedrinking water distribution systems could impact surface and groundwater quality,thus increasing the risk of water-borne illnesses post-earthquake.
Toxic chemicalsreleased from households and industries will be soaked into the soil and will eventuallyend up in ground water or rivers, contaminating drinking water sources of millionsof people. 1.4 EFFECTS ON SURFACE WATER Springs and traditional stone spouts dried up in many places whereas new ones appeared at other places, resulting in severe water shortage and alsoinstigated conflicts between communities.A large number of landslides triggeredby the earthquake resulted in the generating an estimated 19,118,538m3 of sediment,drastically increasing sediment loads in downstream water courses. Increasedsand, clay and slit particles may result in rising river beds, sedimentation andflooding in flatter low-lying areas / Terai and also adversely impact aquatic floraand fauna.
1.5 IMPACT ON GROUNDWATER RESERVOIRSGround water level retreated in many places and the groundwater recharge system was severely impacted.