Ø of the father-son relationship, while the matrilineal extended

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Last updated: September 10, 2019

 Ø SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS:Group of persons banded togetherfor common purpose rights, privilege, goals, objective and distinct and independentperspective of individual member of society. There are many social institutions. Familyinstitutions:Family is basic social institutionfrom which all other institutions have grown and developed.”Family is asocial group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation andReproduction and procreation of children.” (Murdock, n.

d.)Family is different structure butsimilar in function in various societies. Ø TYPES OF FAMILY: 1.

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Nuclear family: It is traditional type of familystructure. It is based on one child and parent. This family receives strengthand stability. (b)Supplemented nuclear family indicated anuclear family plus one or more unmarried, separated or widowed relatives ofthe parents, other than their unmarried children. (c)Sub-nuclear family is definedas a fragment of a former nuclear family, for instance a widow/ widower withher/his unmarried children or siblings (unmarried or widowed or separated ordivorced) living together. (d) Single person household.

(e) Supplemented sub-nuclearfamily refer to a group of relatives, members of a formerly completenuclear family along with some other unmarried, divorced or widowed relativewho was not a member of the nuclear family.2. Singleparent family:One parent raising one or more children. The single parent family is thebiggest change society has seen in terms of the changes in family structure.3. Extended family: It includes aunties, cousins, grandparent living together.

  This type of family form due to financial difficulties.In an extended family, a man andhis wife live with the families of their married sons and with their unmarriedsons and daughters, grand children or great grant children in the paternal ormaternal line. Different types of extended family are still common in Asia. Thepatrilineal extended family is based on an extension of the father-sonrelationship, while the matrilineal extended family is based on themother-daughter relationship. The extended family may also be extendedhorizontally to include a group consisting of two or more brothers, their wivesand children. This horizontally extended family is called the fraternal orcollateral family4. Grandparent family:This include grandparent raisetheir children.

They have to find additional sources to teach their children. 5. Stepfamily:This family creates a family whichmerge from two separate families. This type of family has many problems. Asthey can’t adjust with new on.6.Monogamous familyA monogamous family is based on alegal or social monogamy. In this case, an individual has only one(official) partner during their lifetime or at any one time 7.

Patriarchal Family:Patriarchal family is a type offamily in which all authority belongs to the paternal side. In this family, theeldest male or the father is the head of the family. He exercises his authorityover the members of the family. He presides over the religious rites of thehousehold; he is the guardian of the family goods. In the developed patriarchalsystem of the past, the patriarch had unlimited and undisputed authority overhis wife, sons and daughters.

 8.Matriarchal Family:It is a form of family in whichauthority is centered in the wife or mother. The matriarchal family systemimplies rule of the family by the mother, not by the father.

In this type offamily women are entitled to perform religious rites and husband lives in thehouse of wife. 9.Patrilineal Family:When descent is traced through thefather, it is called patrilineal family. In this type of family inheritance ofproperty takes place along the male line of descent. The ancestry of suchfamily is determined on the basis of male line or the father. A patrilinealfamily is also patriarchal and patrilocal. This is the common type of familyprevalent today.

10. MatrilinealFamily:In this type of family descent istraced along the female line and inheritance of property also takes place alongthe female line of descent (type, n.d.

)                   Familyinstitution in three perspective Ø Functional perspective offamily:·       Functionalistbelieve that:·       Family is avital institution which plays a great role in maintain social order and stability.·       It meets theneed of other institutions as well.·       Family isactually a primary socialization teaching children the norms and values ofsociety·       Functionalistbelieve that nuclear family is ideal family. They provide support ti theirfamily.·       Murdockclaimed that nuclear family is so useful to society that is inevitable anduniversal.Universality of family:•         Murdockclaimed that he had found evidence of nuclear families in the 250 differentsocieties he studiesØ The family is universal because it fulfils thefollowing essential functions for societyØ Sexual – controls sexuality, provides stability foradultsØ Reproductive – provides new members of society.Ø Economic – family provides for its members.Ø Educational– family socialises the young into societies norms and values Criticism: Ø This perspective mainly focus on nuclearfamily.

It ignores diversity. It ignores the divorce rate.Ø Especially the radial psychiatrics believethat family is dysfunctional as it damage the individual health and mental illness.

Ø Functionalist ignore the gender inequalitywithin families. Ø Conflict perspectives: ·       The conflict perspective views the family as a vehicle tomaintain patriarchy (gender inequality) and social inequality in society.·       Conflict theory focuses the way in which members of thefamily struggle for different aspects of life. This include struggle for power andstatus.·       The Conflict perspective refers to the inequalities thatexist in all societies globally.

Conflict theory is particularly interested inthe various aspects of master status in social position—the primary identifyingcharacteristic of an individual seen in terms of race or ethnicity, sex orgender, age, religion, ability or disability, and socio-economic status.Accordingto this theory, family work toward the continuance of social inequality withina society and maintain status eqo.Conflict theorists have also seen the familyas a social arrangement benefiting men more than women, allowing men tomaintain a position of power.

 The traditional family form in most culturesis patriarchal, contributing to inequality between the sexes. Males tend tohave more power and females tend to have less. Traditional male roles andresponsibilities are valued more than the traditional roles done by their wives(i.e., housekeeping, child rearing). The traditional family is also an inequitablestructure for women and children. For example, more than 60 percent of allmothers with children under six are in the paid workforce.

Even though thesewomen spend as much (or more) time at paid jobs as their husbands, they also domore of the housework and child care.It is so difficult for individualsto interact without conflict, growth of all the family members of the familyoccurs through conflict. The conflicts and changes that occur in human life areimportant indicators of normal development and growth of family members.

Theimportant aspect of conflict is how to manage it. Family members should learnhow to manage conflicts so that it does not lead to alienated relationship.   Ø FAMILY RELATIONSHIP WITH SOCIETY:·       The familyhas a decisive role having the capacity and responsibility to impact the entiresociety by its positive example. In order to fulfill its role in societythe family will educate children in moral values so that they will mature andpass on these values to the future generations making society a safe and happyplace for all people to live and enjoy.

·       The familyhas major role in society development as·       Parent’srelationship with children effect the society a lot.·       the familyperforms several functions for society·       it socializeschildren it provide emotional and economical support·       in addition,sudden or far-reaching changes in the family’s structure or processes threatenits stability and weaken society·        The conflict: That arises is the familycontribution to social inequality by reinforcing economic inequality and byreinforcing patriarchy. The family can also be a source of conflict, includingphysical violence and emotional cruelty, for its own members.SymbolicInteractionism:The interactions of family memberseffect the society a lot. Couples have role towards the development of societyas wellFunctionalperspective:If children knows the moral valuesculture and way of living in society.

They can easily adjust with society andthey tend to create the positive role toward society.Family relationship with societyalso depend upon the type of family. (elena, n.d.) Ability for a society to effectively functionand thrive is directly influenced by the strength and quality of family unit. The following are a few of the ways that thefamily affects society: ü The experiences of home and family directly influence a person’smental health, personal integrity and work ethic when that person enters theworkforce.

 ü Single-parent families are more likely to live in poverty.Children in poverty-stricken homes seldom achieve high levels of education,quality healthcare, and the influence of well-adjusted social groups. ü The moral fiber among children and adolescents is weakening. Whenchildren don’t have a home life that is rooted in security, consistency andmoral integrity, they are more inclined to participate in high-risk behaviors andlose sight of a future of rewarding careers and family relationships. A solid foundation of religion andfaith among members of society is crumbling. This could result in a decline infellowship, charity and safety among community members. (share, n.d.

)Ø Family treatment of on women :This is an important factor howfamily treat the womenIf family is just and equaltowards women rights then it has positive effect on society. Treatment towardswomen is changing as time passes In some families the members treatwomen equally and they have equal chance of performing their social activityWomen should be regarded asfunctional component of society. Ø Changes in family system due to urbanizationand industrialization: Industrialization came aboutaround the late 18th century and early 19th centuryindustrialization refers to the shift form an agricultural economy to one thatis based on factory production. Urbanization and industrialization haveweakened family ties v Conflict perspectives:Cities are run by political andeconomic elites that use their resources to enrich their positions and to takeresources from the poor and people of color. The diversity of socialbackgrounds found in cities contributes to conflict over norms and values.v Functional perspective:Cities serve many importantfunctions for society but also have their dysfunctions.

Functionalist theoristsdiffer on the relative merits and disadvantages of urban life, and inparticular on the degree to which a sense of community and social bondingexists within cities.v Symbolic perspective:City residents differ in theirtypes of interaction and perceptions of urban life. Cities are not chaoticplaces but rather locations in which strong norms and values exist.  According to Parsonsafter industrialization the family became nuclear, it had become structurallyisolated from wider family and they had no binding obligation the their widerkinship, also due to the change in structure and demands of the family theindustrial nuclear family has lost some of its functions to other institutionssuch as school and health services.

Parsons believed that because industrialsociety required a geographically mobile work force a geographically mobilefamily is needed, according to Parsons it was a major reason why the family hasbecome nuclear large three generational families cannot relocate easily, butnuclear families could. I would have to agree with parsons and youngand Wilmot that both their studies could be correct to a to some extent butalso conclude that the effect of industrialization to the family was that thefamily structure were not only extended in pre-industrialization but also inearly industrialization because in both times a wider kinship seemed necessaryand then after that in modern society they changed into nuclear isolated familyunits.  Ø Family system of Pakistan: Social life is a part of humannature. Due to various reasons society is divided in rural and urban areas.Similarly.

Pakistani society is also divided in rural and urban society. Beforeto creation of Pakistan the joint family system was much liked but today theworld social change also affected Pakistani culture.Before the creation of PakistanJoint family system was found in a large number and was the most prefer systemin Pakistan but now in Today world of globalization and urbanization jointfamily system is losing its power and family system in Pakistan has beenconverted in nuclear family system. Both the system joint and nuclear has its ownadvantages and disadvantages but today I will only discuss JOINT FAMILY SYSTEM.Both the systems advantages and disadvantages are based of personal experienceof individual and different from one.Joint family system financialburden is share by all family member, and divided their responsibility andpeople feel relax, everybody share their happiness and sorrow with each other’s. Sixty-sevenper cent of Pakistan prefers to live in a joint family system,reveals a survey Disadvantagesof joint family system:A joint family systems now lot ofcrisis emerge on the issues like distribution of household tasks, allocation offinancial responsibilities among different members, division of resources inthe form of food and money.

There are various reasons of each emerging issue injoint family system. Firstly; members of joint families have no incomesecurity. As if a person has surety that whatever he earned it is his own thenhe could become ready to invest and entrepreneurs for the economy of thecountry through proper savings. Joint family system also creates problems inchildren rearing.

As among various loving relations mostly it becomesimpossible for parents to prohibit their children from various bad habits, rudeattitude and wrong behaviors. Loving relations like uncles, aunties andgrandparents do not like to stop children harshly. They do not like to blame orscold their young grandchildren and hence they bring up in a wrong support oftheir loving relations which impacts their whole life badly and therefore theydo the same wrong deeds in their mature life and hinder their own career andgive loss to the country’s economy also. When little boys and girls groomed upin such an environment where there are people who support them for wrong deeds then becomeirresponsible individuals of the country who contribute to preventdevelopmental process.

According toIslamic point of view:Being an Islamic country, peopleof Pakistan prefer to adopt Islamic systems in their life styles so it isimportant to inform Pakistani people that joint family system is strictlyprohibited in Islam. It does not like mix living of girls and boys in a form offamily. There are limitations by Islam to control unlawful intimate relations.

Some families in Pakistan are used to live in joint family system but trying tofollow this religious tradition in wrong way. This creates a lot of problems inwomen’s life. But now the family system ischanging in Pakistan .now nuclear family is more dominant (system, n.d.)                      References elena, e. a.

(n.d.). ttps://erikbrewer.wordpress.com/2012/02/12/family-society-important/.

michelle. (n.d.).

http://family.lovetoknow.com/about-family-values/types-family-structures. Murdock, G. (n.

d.). http://www.studylecturenotes.com/basics-of-sociology/what-is-family-institution-meaning-definition-of-family-institution.

share, f. (n.d.). https://familyshare.

com/2105/strong-families-are-the-key-to-a-prosperous-society. system, j. f. (n.

d.). http://www.bitlanders.com/blogs/joint-family-system-in-pakistan/250633. type, f.

(n.d.). http://www.

yourarticlelibrary.com/family/family-the-meaning-features-types-and-functions-5230-words/8588.  

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