One way the world haschanged since 9/11 is that it has increased violence in world politics. Americahas attacked Afghanistan to get rid of the Taliban’s plus their training camps,with their own agenda to end terrorists but they ended more than that.
Theiraim was to find Osama Bin Laden as Afghanistan were accused of hiding him. TheU.S. was supported by many countriesincluding the UK (BBC News, 2017). Between 10,960 and 49,600 (Dummies, 2017) peoplehave been involved, more people were injured than killed, but the Americantroops left thousands homeless. The total death toll since 2001-2016 has been111,442 (CNN, 2017). There were morethan 10,000 troops (Begins, 2017) deployed in Afghanistan. It started with abombing attack on the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul and by mid-December, thecity was destroyed.
Osama Bin Laden had fled to Pakistan where it was hard forAmerican troops to get into due to political reasons. Pakistan was the safehaven for the Taliban’s across the Pak-Afghan border. The Afghanistan-Americanwar is the longest war in history now leading onto 17 years, there are 8,400troops still in Afghanistan this year (CNN, 2017). The reason why the war isstill ongoing is that America is afraid if they leave space for them, ISIS ora new group could plan a plot against America like 9/11. The second major attackwas on Iraq, America threatened to attack if they didn’t abandon their nuclearweapon programmes (Jenkins, 2011:15). It first started with an air campaign,then by a ground invasion that was led by U.S.
forces. Al-Qaeda wanted Saddam Hussein gone and Americadid their work for them unintentionally. America wanted to remove SaddamHussein from power as he threatenedAmerica in various ways (Quoracom, 2017). He was captured by U.S.
forces inDecember 2003 and executed by Iraqis in 2006. Between 392,979 and 942,636 (Dummies,2017) Iraqi civilians and combatants wereinjured/killed in the process. The invasion was carried out to promote change, intheir sense to have peace in an Islamic extremist-free world.
However, itwasn’t exactly a win for America, they lost approximately 4400+ soldiers (Rickset al., 2017). Iran gained an ally with the new Iraq once Saddam was hanged,their relationship was the winner of the war. The Iraq war became a gateway forIS to exist and once they came into existence, the special air service was sentto the outskirts of Baghdad, Iraq to attack jihadists. Later, they organized into Al-Qaeda and then Islamic Stateand since 2013, ISIS (BBC News, 2017). America’s groundinvasions on countries like Iraq havedestabilized not only the region but also the Middle East.
No one can accuseAmerica to say this was one of their foreign policy goals as there’s no proof, however, if they did then it was unintentional.A big reason why the Middle East is destabilized is because of the decline of American foreign policy (Quoracom, 2017). Rather than bringing freedom and peaceto Iraq, America brought more trouble. America’s biggest failure when it comesto foreign policy was that the Iraq war unintentionally let things go out of control, with this the rise of Islamic Statealso came. Americas main goal post 9/11 regarding foreign policies inAfghanistan has been to make sure that the country doesn’t become a safe havenfor terrorist groups (Felbab-Brown, 2017). Another example of America’s foreignpolicy in the Middle East is in Syria.
An article of Newsweek (18 November2017) said:”Assad previously said hewould welcome U.S. troops in Syria to fight ISIS—under the condition that theycoordinated their campaign with his ally, Russia”.America wants Assad removed from power.
From Russia’send, they have said that their support for Assad is only conditional (Graham-Harrison,2017). Russia has been backing Assad’s regime for a while and it started fromthe cold war days (BBC News, 2017). After this, countries tore a policy change.The main goal of American foreign policy is: “Preserving the nationalsecurity of the United States”.
(Ushistory.org, 2017)President Trump has beenattempting to achieve that goal. Earlier this year he signed an order, whichstates that all refugee admissions must be stopped, he temporarily banned sevenMuslim countries. If anyone does arrive from any of the countries they face a90-day visa suspension (BBC News, 2017).
On 5th December 2017, the BBC said:”The US Supreme Court hasruled President Donald Trump’s travel ban on six mainly Muslim countries can gointo full effect, pending legal challenges”. He said that he was doingthis for national security for his own country and gave examples of theterrorist attacks that have happened earlier this year in Paris and London. Thecountries affected are Chad, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen. The BBC also stated that:”Federal judges havecited Mr. Trump’s campaign description ofhis policy as a “Muslim ban” and his call for “a total andcomplete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States””. In relation to foreignpolicies, the goals the country has set e.g. working with allies to solveinternational problems mainly revolves around co-operation from other nations(ushistory.
org, 2017). America’s foreign policy has influenced other countriessuch as the UK and France. In the UK, the coming of British Jihadists isevolving an example being Salman Abedi who was responsible for the Manchesterbombing (BBC News, 2017). In October 2001, Bush launched ‘operation enduringfreedom’ with allies such as France, Germany and the UK to punish thoseresponsible for 9/11 (E-International Relations, 2017). Maybe because of this, these BritishJihadists or attacks in France are happening e.g. Paris attacks (2015) andGermany e.
g. the Berlin attack in 2016. Not only Europe but it created powervacuums in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, andLibya. The power vacuums allowed the terrorists to move in and do their work.