Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Kent Oliver
Last updated: April 14, 2019
One of theapplication in the field of science has brought tremendous contribution tocriminal and civil laws. Forensic science has been governed for all the legalstandards for criminal investigation admissible evidence in the world.
This is one ofthe important subject that helps in crime scene investigation. The forensicscientists uses genetic principles and technologies for their indispensablework in investigation. Certain methodologies carried out by these scientistscan be by collecting evidences like fingerprints, dna, drugs and link theseevidences to help resolve the crime scenes. This includesthe implementation of genetic testing on civil and legal laws. The branchmainly focuses on the genetic material in humans which is dna (deoxiribonucleic acid).
This uses medical knowledge in civil law.Molecularbiology can be an ideal way to improvise developments inforensics. This was evident during 1960s and 1970s. Forensic haemogenetics wasthe first step to forensic sciences. This was been introduced by KarlLandsteiner during 1600 by taking ABO blood grouping techniques. Under themolecular biology branch it mainly contains, 1. Restrictionenzymes 2. Sangersequencing 3.
Southernblotting All theseprocesses can be used to sequence the dna. These leads to the formation of dnapolymorphisms. During the time of 1984 scientist Alec jeffreys studied (VNTR)variable number tandem repeat this technique can be followed by the extractionof dna and the cutting of it by the molecular scissors called restrictionenzymes. These fragments can be undergone quantification by agaroseelectrophoresis later the polymorphic loci can be identified and observed usingprobe hybridisation and southern blotting. These steps involved in thegeneration of the DNA profile this can be orderly organised to be as like, 1. Crimescene2.
Theobserved materials are been identified and collected3. Thenlater these materials are characterised 4. Theprocess of DNA extraction is done5. Quantitycheck of the extracted DNA is done6.
Thequality and quantity checked DNA is PCR amplified7. Theobtained PCR products has been detected8. Theprofile is later analysed and interpreted9.
Statisticalevaluation of DNA profile10.The final report of thus done process isbeing created. We may be ableto observe the end result as the bands. These bands can be of black colouredwhich is clearly made to observe in x ray film. This technique called VNTR (variablenumber tandem repeat). During the early times of forensics themethod of VNTR has always been a strong and powerful tool used for DNAanalysis. But it has faced a lot limitations which are, 1.
Thisprocess required a large amount of DNA.2. Equipmentswere expensive.3. Theprocess is not possible or won’t work with degraded DNA.4.
There may be some difficulties in comparisonbetween the laboratories. Evolutionary analysis ofgenetic data in forensic genetics: Most of thediverse organisms which are used and studied in forensic studies are organismsbelonging to pathogens. These are always present in the form of largepopulations. They can be mostly present because of its short generation times.The analysis of the samples used under the means of analysis of evolution can bethe ones present in distant generations. This method of analysis can be veryadvantageous that most of the time it can be used for the identification of thegenetic relationships between each species and even the common connections andancestors can be found predominantly. Hence evolutionary analysis can be veryuseful from the aspect of forensic sciences as it helps in these knowledge,in1.
Thereason for the outbreak or the cause of the transmission2. Numberof individuals which are affected 3. Dateand time of the transmission can be known4. Eventhe individual which is responsible for the transmission or outbreak can alsobe found Now as the perspective and the maintenance of theforensic sciences and studies has been increased worldwide, it has become moredeveloped and started using much more significant protocols. So, when this isbeing used by the authorities provide much more information. The depth of theknowledge provided will drastically increases that the identity of the foundsample from the site of crime scene can be viewed in a higher biological levelslike, 1. Population2.
Species3. Breed4. Andeven higher taxonomic levels. Taking theabstract of the genetic methodologies used in the field of forensic sciences.We consider a DNA probe pMC118 which is used to detine the genetic locus D1S58.This locus with various amounts of VNTR OR variable number of tandem repeats isthe one which is run under polymerase chain reaction to be amplified with smallfragments of genomic DNA. The human blood which is amplified to obtain genomicDNA consists of MCT118 locus and after the amplification the pcr bands whichare polymorphic are successfully observed with the stain ethidium bromide onthe poly acrylamide gels.
The ethical, legal and social involvement in forensicstudies:It is true thatthe data collected can be a help for the scientists to know about the originsof the human individuals and could find the suspect of illness and diseases.But it is equally important to consider the ethical and social values too, thatit sometimes can be destructive in the genetic research history. There must bewell experienced and professional scientists who can identify and claim thefull range of the possible execution of the thesis at the early stages itself.most of the times the implementations of research can be based on the need ofdata and technology wise, we can make sure that we do it based on social needsand decreasing the use of science in unintended ways.
The ethical lawsregarding the forensic genetics are being taken care by the US National humangenome research institute (NHGRI) and they have proposed ethical laws andprojects leading to it. The latest project leading to this is the human genomeproject. There must be a combined and associated endeavour from all thescientists so that we could easily reshape the world of science to use it moreresponsibly. These ethical and social laws should be always taken care of whileworking with science and its branches. Conclusion: Now we knowthat the main use of forensic sciences and its studies are in context of theinvestigation and the law enforcement. The techniques of forensic sciences arebeing used by the army to analyse explosives and weapons.
Forensic branch ofgenetics has always lead higher and it provide its varied importance in thepresent and even the future world.