Organisms that cause STDs Name: Course: Instructor: Institution: Date: Organisms that cause STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases are a common repercussion of having unprotected sex. It can be clinically defined as infections that are transmitted among human beings through sexual behavior, including any form of sex be it vaginal, oral or anal sex. STDs, also known as venereal disease, are the most common infectious diseases in the world today. Anyone is at risk of getting STDs as long as they are practicing risky behavior that puts the, in danger of being infected.
So far, an estimate of more than 20 different types of STDs that have been identified and grouped into different classes of bacteria, fungi, parasite, protozoa and virus. Most of the STDs are caused by either bacteria or virus. The bacteria caused STDs are mostly treatable with medication mostly by antibiotics. However, the STDs caused by viruses are not treatable but are rather controlled. Once a person is affected by these viruses, there is no way of treating him or her (Gerdes, 2003).
STDs caused by Bacteria: 1. Chlamydia It is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, which targets the cells of mucous membranes including the surfaces of the urethra (male and female), vagina, cervix, and endometrium (the lining of the uterus) as well as the anus and rectum. Transmission is through vaginal or cervical secretions and semen during unprotected sex with an infected person. It can also be transmitted from mother to newborn during childbirth (Sutton, 2006). Signs and Symptoms Signs emerge within one to three weeks after contact.
Women have vaginal discharge, itching, burning sensation when peeing, aching of the lower abdomen, and pain during intercourse, bleeding between menstrual periods, nausea, or fever if the infection has spread to the fallopian tubes. Men experience inflammation of their scrotal skin, heaviness and discomfort in their testicles and some notice pus in the form of a thick white fluid discharge from the penis and pain or burning during urination. It is tested by cultures of discharges collected from the urethra, anus, throat, or cervix. It is also diagnosed through urine tests. It is treated by a recommended dose of antibiotics.
2. Gonorrhea This disease is caused by bacteria known as Neisseria gonorrhea that grow in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive organs. It is spread through secretions and semen during unprotected sex with an infected person.
It can also be transmitted from mother to newborn during childbirth. Signs and Symptoms Its symptoms are not easy to know Men have an incubation of two to five days after exposure. In women, it is 10days.
The signs are similar to those of Chlamydia. Gonorrhea is tested through cultures of secretions and through urine tests. It is treated using prescribed antibiotics (Robinson, 2009). STDs caused by Viruses: 1. Herpes It is caused by the herpes simplex virus. It has an incubation of about 2 to 7 days after exposure and will last for about 2 to 4 weeks.
It is spread through Signs and symptoms Headaches Backaches Itching or tingling sensations in the genital or anal area small fluid-filled blisters that burst leaving small painful sores women experience pain when passing urine over the open sores Herpes is tested through a series of tests done by a doctor such as swabbing of infected areas. There is no cure for herpes it usually clears itself in a few days. A doctor can also prescribe antiviral drugs (Langston, 1983). 2.
HIV/AIDS It is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Its incubation period is six months to an unknown period. It is spread through blood contact from an infected to a healthy person. It is also spread through unprotected sex, mother to child during pregnancy or breastfeeding and sharing of needles. Signs and Symptoms They come in two forms early signs and symptoms and advanced ones. Early signs include tiredness, nausea headache fever, and diarrhea and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin (Sutton, 2006).
The advanced signs and symptoms are: · Pneumonia · Dry cough · Fatigue · Diarrhea lasting more than a week · White spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat · Recurring fever or profuse night sweats · Loss of memory, depression, and other neurological disorders · Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on, under the skin, or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids HIV/AIDS has no cure. If one is infected he or she is put on antiretroviral drugs to help him or her strengthen their immune system. Conclusion All these diseases can be avoided if one takes proper care of their health. As all of them are spread through sexual intercourse, it is advisable for one to abstain from sex. If not, one should have one partner who they are faithful to always. In addition, one should always use protection.
Reference: Chaitow, L. (1999). HIV & AIDS. Shaftesbury, Dorset: Element. Gerdes, L. I. (2003). Sexually transmitted diseases.
San Diego: Greenhaven Press. Langston, D. P. (1983). Living with herpes: The comprehensive and authoritative guide to the causes, symptoms, and treatment of herpes virus illnesses. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday.
Robinson, W. J. (2009). The treatment of gonorrhea and its complications in men and women. S.l.: General Books LLC. Sutton, A.
L. (2006). Sexually transmitted diseases sourcebook: Basic consumer health information about chlamydial infections, gonorrhea, hepatitis, herpes, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus, pubic lice, scabies, syphilis, trichomoniasis, vaginal infections, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics.