Organizational 1988, p.136). Schein (1992) highlights the impact

Topic: BusinessTime Management
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Last updated: April 11, 2019

Organizationalculture has become an important topic in several scientific disciplines.Organizational culture is typically defined ;as a set of core values, behavioralnorms, artifacts and behavioral patterns which govern the way people in anorganization interact with each other and invest energy in their jobs and the organizationat large; (Van Muijen, Koopman, Dondeyne, De Cock & De Witte, 1992, p.250).The proposed organizational outcomes of charismatic leadership such as highvalue congruence (Conger & Kanungo, 1988), suggest a link betweenorganizational culture and charismatic leadership in organizations. Indeed, manyauthors postulate a strong relationship between this type of  leadership and organizational culture. Sashkin(1988), for instance, argues in his.

writings on ‘visionary leadership theessential work of organizational leaders is defining, constructing and gainingcommitment to a set of shared values, beliefs and norms about change, goals andpeople working together – that is defining, building and involving people inthe organization’s culture. This is the primary task work of organizationalleaders and it is the reason that the three themes of change, goals and peopleworking together must be built into a leader’s vision; (emphasis added,Sashkin, 1988, p.136).

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Schein (1992) highlights the impact the founder of theorganization can have on organizational culture. Culture can spring from threesources: the beliefs, values and assumptions of founders of organizations, thelearning experiences of group members as their organization evolves and newbeliefs, values, and assumptions brought by new members and leaders. In thisview the founder . plays a crucial role in culture formation by choosing thebasic mission, the group members, the environmental context in which the newgroup will operate, and the initial responses the group makes in order tosucceed and integrate within this environment. Leaders of organizations embedand transmit culture in the thinking, feeling and behavior of the group. Schein(1992) suggests a special  impact ofcharismatic leaders on organizational culture:The simplest  explanation of how leaders get their messageacross is through charisma in that one of the main elements of that mysteriousquality undoubtedly is a leader’s ability communicate major assumptions andvalues in a vivid and clear manner. According to Schein, leaders have sixprimary ‘culture embedding’ mechanisms (see table 1). There are also severalsecondary ‘culture articulation and reinforcement’ mechanisms.

These mechanismsare secondary in the sense that they only work when they are in line with theprimary mechanisms

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