Type: Proposal Essays
Sample donated: Manuel Wagner
Last updated: August 11, 2019
Over the years motivation for employees has become a crucial factor forcompanies.
As employees want to work for a company that gives them recognitionfor their work, advancement within the role and most of all they feel motivatedat work. The industry I will be looking at is the fast food industry and withinthat the business will be McDonald’s.McDonald’s is known worldwide for the food they make, having more than34,000 restaurants worldwide making it one of the world’s largest restaurantchain. McDonald’s offers a zero-hour contract policy as they may require moreworkers. It’s very important that they keep their employees motivated so thatthey can keep up with the daily demand they have. Motivation is a combination of three factors, energy, direction andpersistence.
The theory that I will be looking at is Maslow theory, introducedin 1943. His ideas are conveyed through a hierarchy diagram. There are fivecategories within the diagram, physiological needs, security needs, socialneeds, esteem needs and self-actualization. The proposal for Maslow is that an individual should get what they desire,and that the order he has proposed is the way individuals require thosefactors.
For example, security needs enable the individual to think aboutfinancial needs to pay for rent and upcoming bills but by getting paid £4.75 anhour for a 27-year-old is below the national minimum wage. “He and his colleagues scald themselves to earn theprofits”1 implying they arehaving to put financial needs above their health to survive and pay bills. Theywere unable to take any breaks due to how busy it was and this in the long termwould impact their mental stability alongside not being motivated the reasonbeing the conditions they work in. On the other hand, zero-hourcontracts are useful for students as they would be able to take up hours duringtheir free time alongside even the elderly as they would be able to interactwith individuals, work and earn.A criticism of Maslow theory is the structure of his hierarchy, as for everyindividual the needs are going to vary. It was stated his theory supported jobsatisfaction more rather than motivation by (Nadler and Lawler 1979)2Hertzberg et al (1957) stated there are two types of motivation, the firstone being Intrinsic motivation which is self-generated and allows individualsto do what they want to do, for example, doing more overtime or developing anew skill.
Extrinsic motivation is what is done to motivate them such asincentives or even giving them a pay rise. In McDonald’s to ensure that workers feel motivated about coming to workthey have “incentives put into place”3 that employees would get thechance to go aboard or other perks involved. This means employees would take onmore hours when they were offered as they would have a greater chance of beingin the draw alongside making more money that month which would increase theirmotivation. However, those factors are a fantastic way to motivate your employees but,knowing that “hours are cut if you’re not a manager’s favourite”4then employees would not be motivated by the incentives put into place as theyknow their hours are going to be cut.
Extrinsic motivation is what theMcDonalds employees are looking for as in the U.K and USA there have beenseveral strikes regarding the pay structure. It was mentioned that SteveEasterbrook who is the chief executive “doubled his wage to $15.
4m in 2017- anhourly wage of roughly £5,700″5 hence why the employees went on astrike as they had been demanding a pay rise.Hygienic factors are crucial in any job and if the environment is unhygienicthen employees won’t feel motivated as Hertzberg stated. Several McDonaldsfranchises “found food and grease on the floors, walls and in storage areas.
“6Being told by your family members that they would never work there or think itis “degrading and dehumanising work”6 wouldn’t be motivating to hearwhen you are struggling to find a job or don’t like your existing job. Thesmell within the work environment would be off putting.However, one of the criticisms for Hertzberg is that his findings were basedon managers rather than employees which invalidates his findings. The theorystates that achievement and recognition are much more important than factorssuch as salary which nowadays is the first thing employees ask about. The rewards that McDonalds offer is bonuses towardsstaff, child care vouchers and health care plan that staff can invest within.
This is beneficial for working mothers or elderly that want to invest in ahealth care plan or the staff being eligible to a bonus scheme that runs withinthe company. There are non-financial rewards given such as longer lunches, extratime off. Stated by a former employee “everything I needed to know, I learnedin McDonald’s”7Overall, rewards are the main aspect why individualsare motivated at work. For staff that are on zero- hour contracts it may notgive the same satisfaction compared to having a permanent job as the needswould vary. Alongside I believe the theories proposed by theorists have alsomade a difference within the workplace as employers have started thinking ofseveral ways to motivate their staff.