PARAMETERS8-14 (12,14 not included) 8) Today largequantities of clean fuels are used in many countries, and there is a prospectof widespread use of them in the future. The need to use alternative andrenewable fuels for oil and its products has begun to play a very importantrole in the developed world. Biofuels, biogas, hydrogen, etc. can replace orsupplement fossil fuels. Biofuels are all solid, liquid and gaseous fuelsderived from biomass (renewable energy source).
Thechemical structure of biofuels can contrast similarly with the syntheticstructure of fossil fuels can vary. Generally, our advantage is in fluidbiofuels as they are anything but difficult to transport. The table beneathcontrasts different biofuels and their petroleum counterparts partners.
Biofuel Fossil Fuel Differences Ethanol Gasoline/Ethane Ethanol has about half the energy per mass of gasoline, which means it takes twice as much ethanol to get the same energy. Ethanol burns cleaner than gasoline, however, producing less carbon monoxide. However, ethanol produces more ozone than gasoline and contributes substantially to smog.
Engines must be modified to run on ethanol. Biodiesel Diesel Has only slightly less energy than regular diesel. It is more corrosive to engine parts than standard diesel, which means engines have to be designed to take biodiesel.
It burns cleaner than diesel, producing less particulate and fewer sulfur compounds. Methanol Methane Methanol has about one third to one half as much energy as methane. Methanol is a liquid and easy to transport whereas methane is a gas that must be compressed for transportation. Biobutanol Gasoline/Butane Biobutanol has slightly less energy than gasoline, but can run in any car that uses gasoline without the need for modification to engine components.
Source (http://biofuel.org.uk/) The mostimportant are biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats,bioethanol produced from sugarcane, cellulose and starchy plants, biogasproduced from organic agro-industrial and other wastes and residues, as well asfrom energy plants.Economic,social and, above all, environmental reasons require the replacement of fossilfuels, since biofuels contribute to reducing emissions of hazardous pollutantsthat have a significant impact on health and are responsible for global climatechange and, in particular, for greenhouse gases.
Biomassproduction can contribute to local development, boosting agriculture andcreating new jobs, thus contributing to the development of a sustainable energysystem that ensures at the same time fuel safety, economic efficiency andenvironmental protection. So the ideais that if BWTC start creating and use biofuels it could become an even moresustainable example to the world. Unfortunately there is no publication abouttelling that they are using biofuels but maybe it’s a future plan. On one Hand: Biofuelsgenerate 90% fewer hydrocarbon emissions and 50% less carbon dioxide emissions,which is safer for our health. It is non-flammable and non-toxic and safe forhandling and touch.
Thebenefits of cooking oils are that they can be mixed with regular oil and can beoperated with any diesel engine. So buildings can use it as a fuel for boilersor their heaters.Byconverting the food and other organic waste from the building into cleanenergy, bio-mechanisation creates fertilizer and methane gas. The gas can beused to supply large gas engines to produce electricity.Very highpercentage of the building will be used to construct the building to avoid pollutantsfrom conventional fuels, such as power-operated concrete mixers and electricforklift trucks. The use of hydrogen has been studied is difficult at present.As is well known, the use of fossil fuels in internal combustion engines leadsto the emission of hazardous pollutants that endanger public health. Nitrogenoxides, and various volatile organic compounds and increased carbon dioxideproduction, are threatening the atmosphere and therefore the use of alternativeenergy sources such as hydrogen production seems to be the best solution toavoid climate change and the greenhouse effect.
Hydrogen is theoretically thebest fuel, without any environmental burden, because when it is burned withoxygen it only forms water. Hydrogen can be used in automotive engines, sogreenhouse gases are not formed during its combustion, as opposed toconventional pollutants that continually contaminate the atmosphere withdangerous pollutants for health and the environment. In this way we willachieve a reduction in air pollutants and noise in the wider area.
On the other hand: Acceptingthat we can defeat the issue of biofuels interfering with the food supply, (forexample, developing green growth in the sea), would we be able to beat theissue of biofuels adding to an global-warming? The appropriate response,shockingly, might be yes. The realityof the matter is that biofuels create carbon dioxide, which is an intense ozoneharming substance and the one regularly rebuked for a dangerous atmosphericdevation. In any case, it is additionally obvious that developing plantsexpends carbon dioxide. Subsequently, the condition turns into astraightforward exercise in careful control. On the off chance that the plantswe develop use a similar measure of carbon dioxide that we deliver, at thatpoint we will have a net increment of zero and no a dangerous atmosphericdevation.
How sensible is this view? It mightappear like a basic issue to just deliver as much carbon dioxide as plantsutilize. All things considered, would we be able to just consume biofuels andin this way keep the condition adjusted? All things considered, the math reallydoesn’t exactly add up. Research has demonstrated that energy must be put intocreating crops and changing over them into biofuels before any energy isacquired. A recent report from Cornell University found that delivering ethanolfrom corn utilized nearly 30% more energy than it created. As it were, youcan’t deliver an interminable movement machine utilizing biofuels on thegrounds that you lose the energy you put resources into making them in anycase. Generally you can’t even break even.
9) PublicUrban Transport is a key pillar in the day-to-day operation of urban areasaround the world. The use of public transport services contributes to theday-to-day movements of citizens and visitors of a region and leads to thereduction of urban traffic, which means reducing the number of private vehiclesand consequently congestion.By aimingto reduce energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants into the environmentand thus to create better traffic conditions, we contribute to improvingenvironmental conditions – reducing pollutants and upgrading the quality oflife. BahrainWorld Trade Centre is located in the core of Manama’s business region. Itoffers direct access to the Bahia’s primary courses, the King’s Faisal Highway.
The central area of the building is only a fifteen moment drive from theairport which interfacing Bahrain to the world. Of course, near the building,there are various public urban transports, which are offered to people so thatthey can move around the country. A Part ofthe Ministry’s procedure is to improve the public transportation divisionthrough provision of high level services to enhance the usage of the public transportationby adding facilities like terminals and new transport stations to basicallyhelp and enhance the standard and value of the bus-transport service. 10) With thecurrent data, the car is an integral part of everyday life and developmentitself as it is directly linked to the facilitation of travel with publicservices and in general with every aspect and activity of the citizens. The useof a private car leads to crowding out of public space and characterizes thearea by a lack of quality infrastructure for pedestrian and bicycle travel andenvironmental degradation.The abilityto cope and not to use a private car creates urban areas “free ofcars”. The implementation of measures to restrict private cars requiresthe promotion of alternative means of transport. Such as extensive pedestrianzones, an extensive network of city buses and fixed-track means (underground,tramway) as well as a bicycle path network.
The abovealternative means of transport reduces air pollution from industrial andtransport activities. Secondly, noise pollution is reduced. Sound generated bythe use of motor vehicles is an important source of negative impacts fornetwork users, pedestrians and residents of the area.
And thirdly, jamming andcost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, in the area of Bahrain world tradecenter although there are a lot of public transports, the usage of cars is hasnot been reduced much due to the reason that the stations available do notinclude (mostly the local people) the destinations that they want to go. On theother hand, tourists mostly use the public transports as it covers most oftheir desirable destinations so slowly the problem may be solved by adding moreand more bus-routes 11) It is notedthat in many countries, citizens show increased interest and implementinnovative practices to improve quality of life. They aim to promote cyclingand walking as an alternative means of transport. That is, they aim atintegrated interventions targeting cities without a car, a direction towardssustainability.Walking andcycling helps reduce traffic congestion and brings further public healthbenefits from reduced car use, thus reducing air pollution, carbon dioxideemissions, noise and the overall level of traffic risk and at the same timeimproves the human traffic system, allowing people to engage in a form ofhealthy exercise during everyday life. Finally it causes an increase in thenumber of people of all ages who are out on the streets, making public placeslook more hospitable and safer, day and night, providing opportunities forsocial interaction.Themeasures required to deal with wider walking or cycling influences should besafe, convenient and enjoyable.
This includes measures to reduce road hazardsand redistribute road space, recreation of public space to create a morefavorable environment, flexible transport and taxi systems, bus services,express services, information and awareness raising. Finally, action in theseareas is particularly important in addressing health inequalities, includingdisability-related issues. Bahrain isa big dusty country. Although people do cycling and walking the country is notbicycle and walking friendly. Especially during the summer time, daytime is nota good action no matter how prepared you are due to the reason that thetemperature is dangerously hot. 12) It is notedthat in most countries, citizens show increased interest and implementinnovative practices to improve the quality of life. They aim to promotecycling and walking as an alternative means of transport. That is, they aim atintegrated interventions targeting cities without a car, a direction towardssustainability.
Walking andcycling helps reduce traffic congestion and brings further public healthbenefits from reduced car use, thus reducing air pollution, carbon dioxideemissions, noise and the overall level of traffic risk and at the same timeimproves the human traffic system, allowing people to engage in a form ofhealthy exercise during everyday life. Finally it causes an increase in thenumber of people of all ages who are out on the streets, making public placeslook more hospitable and safer, day and night, providing opportunities forsocial interaction.Themeasures required dealing with wider walking or cycling influences should besafe, convenient and enjoyable. This includes measures to reduce road hazardsand redistribute road space, recreation of public space to create a morefavorable environment, flexible transport and taxi systems, bus services,express services, information and awareness raising. Finally, action in theseareas is particularly important in addressing health inequalities, includingdisability-related issues. 13) Percentageof local materials use Theconstruction sector, which is directly related to the construction ofbuildings, homes and infrastructure such as transport, communications, watersupply etc., is a prerequisite for the proper economic and social developmentof each country and the achievement of sustainability at a global level.
Buildingsaccount for a huge percentage, about 40% of the total energy consumption, whilethe sustainability of construction concerns mainly technical matters, such asthe type of local materials and energy saving as well as the reduction of theoverall environmental impact.Thesustainability of a building must be local and renewable in order to contributeto the creation of an ecologically responsible world. It must be built usinglocally viable materials such as materials that can be used without negativeeffects on the environment and produced locally, reducing the need fortransport and transport and, at the same time, emissions of gases into theatmosphere.Bahrain’snature offers some wonderful building materials, some of which are renewableresources such as stones and sand. And because these materials require littleprocessing or transportation, environmental and economic costs are low.
Of coursethe usage of other materials was used. Below is the list of the buildingmaterials. Concrete 4000cubic meter Steel reinforcement 730 tonnes Cement 1600 tonnes Stone and sand 7400 tonnes Water 1600 litre 14) Percentageof harvest timber use The forest,as we all know, is trees, bushes and other various plants and animal organismsthat, together with soil and climate, are in constant influence and dependenceon each other. Forests offer various forest species such as the necessary wood forproduction, produces significant amounts of biomass, binds energy and carbondioxide releasing oxygen and moisture, which affects the microclimatepositively but also the air quality.It alsooffers a variety of operations at a global level, including the control ofwater erosion and control, the cultivation of water resources, the limitationof global warming from CO2 absorption, and the conservation of biodiversity.Forestsoffer wood for the construction of houses/buildings, biomass for fuel, wood,medicines and many other products. Timber is a renewable, recyclable, naturalresource and a major factor in economic, social and cultural development.
Nevertheless,it is up to us both to preserve existing forests and sustainable wood, as theclimatic and soil conditions favour the development and expansion of forests.Sustainabletimber refers to logs that have been harvested responsibly. This requires thatwhen a tree is cut for use, another one is planted to replace it. However,”Sustainable forestry” means more than replacing trees such asharvesting – it also includes ensuring that there is no ecological damage to theenvironment.Theharvesting of forest products refers to: · Treedropping · Decay· Shredding· Peeling · Logshifting · Firewoodtransport. Woodproducts can still be used effectively even after they have served theirpurpose. For example, timber can be reused after building demolition.
Wood canalso be used as a fuel. In this way, coal is retained until the wood productsused as biomass fuel to produce electricity.