Parentingis the giving of necessary support to a child for their physical, emotional,social, and intellectual or cognitive development (Baydar, Akç?nar, & ?mer,2012). Since modernization is a continuous process, raising a child in a modernsociety could be a challenging task as a parent due to the new technologies andscientific advances offered by the new millennia. The parents, as older thegeneration, grew up in a different period, lived in a differentsocial-environment, and brought up with a different set of values.
They, aswell as their parenting as they raise a child, should also adapt with themodern era. Parentshave a huge influence to their children, which will be the next generation ofadults. The family unit, particularly the parents, is important for thedevelopment of young children’s activity-related attitudes, beliefs,preferences, and behaviors (Dempsey, Kimicik, & Horn, 1993). The SocialLearning Theory (Bandura, 1977) suggests that young individuals learn throughobserving other people.
Many researches were conducted and support this view. Parentsaffect their children’s physical activity (Thompson, Flumbert, & Mirwald,2003), academic values (Gniewosz and Noack, 2012), social adjustments (D’Angelo, Weinberger, & Feldman, 1995), intergroup attitudes (Degner & Dalege, 2013), political andreligious attitudes (Jennings, Stoker, & Bowers, 2009) etc. Generationaltheory propose that when people are born within a 20 year time period, have alocation in history, share common beliefs and behavior, and posses a sensemembership within the generational group, generational cohorts emerge (Strauss& Howe, 1991). Generational cohorts are assumed to be completely differentin values and behaviors because they experienced different events during theirformative years (Howe & Strauss, 2003). Investigatingthe generational gap between parents and their adolescent or young adultchildren generated considerable research attention during the 1960s and 1970s,although, actual differences in beliefs and values between parents and theiradolescent children were found to be minimal or insignificant (Jacobsen, Berry,& Olson, 1975). In contrast, Acock and Bengtson (1980) proposed that wrongquestions were being asked about generational differences. “Rather than ask,’To what extent is the generation gap real?’ we ask, ‘Where is the reality ofthe generation gap?'” (p.
502). This question was pursued through research andyouth perceptions of parental attitudes, not the actual parent attitudes, weresurprisingly strong predictors of young adults’ self reported attitudes. It is concludedthat the generation gap exists when perceived differences exist (Acock andBengtson, 1980).
Technologyis an integral part of contemporary family life (McHale, Dotterer, & Kim,2009; Vogl-Bauer, 2003; Wartella & Jennings, 2001), which directedattention to generational differences between parents and youth (Clark, 2009;Livingstone, 2003). The Millennial generation, born between 1980 and 2000 (PewResearch Center, 2010), which includes contemporary young adults, is proposedto be different and unique from the Baby Boomer generation (born between 1943and 1960; Coomes & Debard, 2004) and Generation X, born between 1961 and1981, cohorts based not only on Millennials’ access to technology, but how theyhave integrated technology into their social lives (Pew Research Center, 2010).Further, generational differences in technological skills have been proposed,with Millennials experiencing more proficiency and comfort with technology thanprevious generations (Prensky, 2001).
The differences between generationalcohorts have largely been based on anecdotal evidence and have been perpetuatedby popular media, but little empirical support for actual generationaldifferences has emerged in the literature (Litt, 2013). However, consistentwith Acock and Bengtson’s (1980) conclusions in their generation gap research,a few qualitative studies identified perceived generational differences intechnology skills between parents and their children (Clark, 2009; Livingstone,2003).Modernizationis a comprehensive concept that illustrates the transition of a society fromancient to modern culture (Kumar & Mittal, 2014). According to Inkeles andSmith (1974) a modern man are has thereadiness for new experience and openness to innovation and change, and thecapability of forming or holding opinions over large numbers of problems andissues that arise not only in immediate environment but also outside of it. Krithikaand Vasantha (2013) conducted a study the development and modernization oftechnology had made people’s life easier and contributed positively to socialwell being so for while it has also brought about some problems.
This studyaims to examine the relationship between parenting and modernization attitudesof Kapampangan parents.