Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Stacey Miller
Last updated: May 18, 2019
Path Goal theory is defined as howleaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals.
It explains howleaders can help subordinates along the path to their goals by selectingspecific behaviours that are best suited to subordinates’ needs. By choosingthe appropriate style, leaders increase subordinates’ expectation for successand satisfaction. The four Path Goal types of leader behaviours are Directive,Supportive, Participative and Achievement (Northouse, 2016). 1. The behaviourcharacteristic Daniel exhibited at the duplicating services is Supportive. Daniel promotes a friendlywork atmosphere such as allowing casual attire and the freedom to choosebackground music; he also spends a lot of time talking to each employee, andwelcomes staff talking with each other. Daniel makes each worker feel importanteven when the work is insignificant. He promotes camaraderie among his staff,and is not afraid to become involved in their activities.
Thesecond behaviour is Achievement. Staffat the desktop publishing area is quite independent, self-assured, andself-motivated. In supervising them, Daniel gives them a lot of space, isavailable when they need help, but otherwise leaves them alone as a way ofexpressing confidence in their capabilities to meet his expectations.
2. Danielunderstood the characteristics of the subordinates and the values of the tasks.He adopts different leadership style for different departments. Daniel’sleadership is effective as profits for the store continue to grow, and hemanages to motivate effectively and create productivity in the Copy Center.
The Hill’s model forteam leadership provides an overview of the different aspects involved in teamleadership to support leaders with decision-making and problem-solving tasks. Itwas designed to provide a cognitive road map for identifying team needs, andoffer suggestions about how to take appropriate actions to improve the team’sfunctions and effectiveness. There are four sections to this model: 1)Leadership Decisions, 2) Internal Leadership Actions (Task & Relational),3) External Leadership Actions (Environmental), and 4) Team Effectiveness (Northouse, 2007). First issue: theostracised team member situation is identified as an Internal Leadership Actionand a Relational issue. Coaching the team member on his interpersonalskills and encouraging team collaboration will help the team member adaptto the organisation culture.Second issue: AnInternal Leadership Action and a Task issue, the leader may clarify goalswith the team to obtain agreement and consensus on goals setting. Another solution is to facilitatedecision-making by informing, controlling, coordinating, mediating,synthesising and focusing on the issue.Third issue: Unableto get recognition and support from the top management team is an External LeadershipAction.
The leader may negotiate support with upper management toprovide recognition to boost the team’s motivation levels. Another solution isto advocate the team’s success by initiating a newsletter thatchronicles the team’s efforts.Leaders can use thismodel to help make decisions about the current state of their teams and realisewhat actions to take to improve the team’s functions in order to achieveeffectiveness.Leadershipin the 21st century is different and over changing because of megatrendsand evolution in business. There are six differences in leadership towards the21st century: Society values, Technological revolution,Globalisation, Continuous innovation, Knowledge workers, and wellness movement (Hitt & Haynes, 2010).
Companiesneed to look into the wellness aspects and make firms a great place to “live,work and play”. Focusing on well-being at work benefits the organisation byhelping employees feel competent, happy, and satisfied in their role. Employeeswho have good well-being at work are likely to be more motivated, more loyal, andmore productive.
Taking careof employees’ well-being makes economic sense as healthier staffs reduceabsenteeism, increase focus, and lower stress levels.To take advantage of the Wellness movement trend, theorganisational leader can develop a strategicvision, by focusing on the vision and communicating new values andcommitments. “Make wellness your own” is the tagline of Starbucks’ wellness programme. The coffeechain provides information, tools, and a culture to reinforce health andwellness.
Wellness, Starbucks claims, is larger than benefits.Starbucks builds corecompetencies by constantly identifying new plans and global marketopportunities and builds an effective organisational culture to support thechanges and size of the business. Starbucks insures all their employees with comprehensivehealth coverage, life insurance, disability insurance, commuter benefits, adoptionassistance, Health and Dependent care reimbursement accounts, employeeassistance programmes, and financial assistance programmes. Attractive incentivesare available such as company stocks, education benefits, tuition reimbursementand paid vacation.Laissez-faire leadership, also known asdelegative leadership, is a type of leadership style in which leaders arehands-off and allow group members to make decisions.
This leadership style usuallyleads to the lowest productivity (Bass, 1990).A Laissez-faire leader trusts that theteam member can work towards solutions. By giving constructive feedback, theleader gives a hands-off approach to change his behaviour during meetings and decidewhat is the right and wrong ways of doing things. However, this free-rein stylemay make the leader appear as uninvolved or unengaged.
Transformational leadershipis a process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality in bothleaders and followers. There are four ‘I’ factors involved in Transformationalleadership – Idealised influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectualstimulation and Individual considerations (Burns, 1978).Idealised influence can be most expressed through a transformationalleader’s willingness to follow a core set of values, convictions and ethicalprinciples. Acting as a strong role model and displaying a charismaticpersonality will influence others to follow the leader’s vision.
It is throughthis concept of idealised influence that the leader builds trust with the teammember.Another ‘I’factor is Individualised consideration;the transformational leader listens carefully to the team member’s needs and providesgenuine concern. Through coaching and mentoring, training opportunities can beprovided for this team member to grow and become fulfilled in his position,thus changing his behaviour and inducing his will to change his work attitudeand be a responsible team member. Diversityis a range of different things that confronts leadership today.
This includesrace, language, religion, age, sexual orientation, and gender. One of the keydifferences in leadership is in the role of woman and today’s gender equality (Chin & Trimble, 2014).Referring to the LeadershipLabyrinth, one of the barriers Susan will likely face is Human Capital differences. Women are usually provided with lessopportunity for education, job training and certifications than man because of responsibilitywomen assume for child rearing and domestic duties. Women also usually have totackle issues of family, marriage, leave taking care of children, andre-entering the workforce after child birth.
Another barrier is Prejudice. It explains the lessfavourable attitudes towards female than male leaders, greater difficulty forwomen to attain top leadership roles, and greater difficulty for women to beviewed as effective (Eagly & Carli, 2007).The Advancement of Womentask force can try to change the organisation culture and develop policy changeand create management diversity to help women like Susan. The task force should increase awarenessof the psychological drivers of prejudice toward female leaders, and work todispel those perceptions. In addition, establishing family-friendly humanresources practices including introducing flexible working hours, job sharing,telecommuting, elder care provisions, dependent childcare options are some waysto provide support and allow women to stay in their jobs during the early and mostdemanding years of childcare, build social capital, keep up-to-date in theirfields, and compete for higher positions.