People who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis occasionallyneed surgery.
There are a range of operations available from quite minor onessuch as the release of a nerve or a tendon to major surgery such as jointreplacement. Hip, knee, shoulder, and elbow replacements are extremelysuccessful operations.The four main groups of drugs which are used to treatrheumatoid arthritis are painkillers (analgesics), non-steroidal anti-inflammatorydrugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and steroids. · physical therapies· drugs· surgeryThe capsule persists stretched and can’t hold your joint inits proper position when the inflammation goes down.
This leads to your joint becomingunstable, and moving into unusual or deformed positions. Around 400,000 peoplein the UK are affected by rheumatoid arthritis. Adults can be affected at anyage, but it most commonly starts to develop between the ages of 40 and 50. Thetype of arthritis affects three times as many women as men. Even though there’sno current cure for rheumatoid arthritis yet, a variety of treatments that canslow down the condition and keep joint damage to a minimum are offered to thoseaffected. The earlier the treatment is started, the more effective it’s likelyto be. The three main parts to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are:An example of an autoimmune disease that causes inflammationin your joints is rheumatoid arthritis. Its main symptoms are joint pain andswelling.
This is the second most common form of arthritis in the UK alone. Thearthritis causes inflammation in the synovia and as a result, it goes red,swells, produces extra fluid and hurts. The flow of blood increasing causes theredness. This leads to the inflamed joint feeling warmer than usual. A build-upof fluid and cells in the synovia is the reason for the inflammation. The pain experiencedin the joints is due to your nerve endings being irritated by the chemicals producedby the inflammation and the capsule being stretched by the swelling in yourjoint.RheumatoidArthritis Anexample of an effective cream that is also a very well-tolerated painkiller iscapsaicin cream.
It’s particularly useful for knee and hand osteoarthritis.This may be prescribed by doctors or specialists. Doctors may also be able toprescribe stronger painkillers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs if thepain caused by osteoarthritis becomes too much to bare. Surgery may beconsidered if osteoarthritis is causing severe pain or mobility problems.
Occasionalsteroid injections may also be prescribed by your doctor and these are givendirectly into the affected joint.These symptoms will vary depending on the people affected.Some people find that changes in the weather increase the pain intensity, especiallydamp weather along with falling atmospheric pressure whereas others may findthat the pain varies depending on how active they’ve been.· Swelling – The swelling may be hard (caused byosteophytes) or soft (caused by synovial thickening and extra fluid), and themuscles around your joint may look thin or wasted.· Stiffness – Your joints may feel stiff afterrest, but this usually wears off as you get moving.· A grating or grinding sensation – Your jointcreaking or crunching as you move · Pain – The pain tends to increase when you moveyour joint or at the end of the day. If you have severe osteoarthritis, thepain becomes regular.· Not being able to use your joint normally – Yourjoint can’t move as freely or as far as normal which may sometimes give waybecause your muscles have weakened or your joint has become less stable.
Thiscan be prevented by exercises to strengthen your muscles.Another condition that affects your joints is osteoarthritis.The surfaces of the joints become damaged which leads to the joint not beingable to move as smoothly as it normally do. This is sometimes referred to as arthrosis.When osteoarthritis forms in a joint, some of the cartilage which protects thebone’s ends gradually roughens and becomes thin, and the bone underneath becomesfirmer. The joint’s tissues grow more active than regular. The bone at the edgeof your joint grows outwards as if your body is trying to repair the damage.
This leads to bony spurs called osteophytes forming. The synovia is the innerlayer of the joint capsule which produces synovial fluid and it may increase infirmness and make extra fluid as a result of this. This swells up the joint. Thecapsule and ligaments are the tough bands that hold the joint together. Thesethicken and contract at a slow pace as if they are trying to make your jointmore stable. The main symptoms of osteoarthritis are: Osteoarthritis If the victim has other features of metabolic syndrome suchas high blood pressure, high lipids and diabetes, being in control of thesewill also help to decrease the level of urate in their bodies.
· not drinking too much alcohol· avoiding foods which are high in purines· losing weight if you’re overweightThere are also other ways of reducing your urate levels suchas:There two main aspects to the treatment of gout are treatingthe acute attack of inflammation when one or more joints are very inflamed andpainful and on-going treatment to decrease the level of urate in your blood anddestroy the presence of urate crystals.Inflammation is caused by urate crystals which leads to the affectedjoint becoming: intensely painful red hot swollen. The skin that covers theaffected joint regularly looks shiny and may peel. The big toe is typicallyaffected by attacks and this usually starts at night. The development of thesymptoms increases and they are at their worst within 12-24 hours of firstnoticing their effect on the victim. If there is a slight contact with theaffected joint, it becomes painful that even the bed sheet’s weight or puttingon a sock can be unbearable. Often, gout leads to symptoms in the big toe, butother joints which may also be affected include: joints in the feet ankles kneeselbows wrists fingers.
If there are several inflamed joints at once this iscalled polyarticular gout and it’s extremely rare to have gout in jointstowards the centre of the body like the spine, shoulders or hips. Gout islabelled the most common type of inflammatory arthritis as it attacks 2.5% ofadults in the UK. More men are affected than it by women and it can occur inmen at any age. Gout is rarely developed by women before the menopause.
Anincrease of age in both men and women makes it more common affecting 15% of menand 6% of women over the age of 75. The presence of gout has been increasing inrecent decades in many countries, including the UK due to us living longer, andmore people getting overweight or obese. Gout is a type of arthritis which can be heavily painful;and it forms due to the presence of sodium urate crystals in your joints. Thecrystals may have formed years ago without the victim knowing they’re present;however they can activate an attack of gout on occasions. These attacks usuallyappear quick during the night.
This sudden development of symptoms has beendescribed by specialists as ‘acute’. There was a time were gout was thought tohave been caused simply by overeating and drinking too much alcohol. Chemicalprocesses that occur in the human body cause gout to take place. Urate is asubstance that expands in the body, sometimes due to your kidneys not beingable to get rid of it fast enough. This eventually progresses to urate crystalsforming in and around your joints over a period of time. When a lot of crystalsbuild up in your joints some of them can activate an immediate excruciatingepisode of severe joint inflammation which usually returns back to normalwithin a week.
If these attacks remain untreated, it leads to them becomingmore common and increasing to involve new joints.Gout Arthritis · physiotherapy · analgesics (painkillers)· disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)– a combination of treatments is often recommended· regular exerciseTreatment to slow down the condition’s progress and minimisejoint inflammation or swelling is offered for rheumatoid in order to try andprevent damage to the joints. The treatments recommended are:· osteotomy (where a bone is cut and re-aligned)· arthroplasty (joint replacement)· arthrodesis (joint fusion)If the disease becomes severe, doctors and specialists mayrecommend the following procedures:· corticosteroids· painkillers· non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)Medications are often prescribed for osteoarthritis, thesemedications including:There’s no cure for Arthritis does not have a cure yet,however many treatments that can help slow down the condition are available forthe victims.
The main types of JIA are oligo-articular JIA andpolyarticular JIA (polyarthritis). Oligo-articular JIA is the most common type,affecting fewer than five joints in the body – most of these joints being theankles, knees and wrists. This type of arthritis has good recovery rates and rarelong-term effects although there’s a risk that children with the condition maydevelop eye problems hence why regular eye tests with specialists are advised.Unlike oligo-articular JIA, polyarticular JIA affects five or more joints andthis can develop at any age during childhood. There is a similarity in symptomsbetween polyarticular JIA and adult rheumatoid arthritis. The disease oftencomes with a rash and a high temperature of 38C or above.Although arthritis is mainly associated with elders, it canalso affect children.
Around 15,000 children and young people in the UK aloneare affected by arthritis. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the name usedto refer to most types of childhood arthritis. This causes pain andinflammation in one or more joints for a minimum amount of six weeks. Althoughthe cause of the disease is unknown, the symptoms are most likely to get betteras a child ages, which means they can lead normal lives.· warm, red skin over the affected joint· inflammation in and around the joints· weakness and muscle wasting· restricted movement of the joints· joint pain, tenderness, and stiffnessThe main symptoms of arthritis depend on the type you havewhich is why accurate diagnosis is important, and these symptoms are :There are other types of arthritis and related conditionspeople can suffer from such as lupus which is an autoimmune condition that canaffect many different organs and the body’s tissues and gout which is a type ofarthritis led by too much uric acid in the body which can cause redness, intensepain and swelling.Rheumatoid arthritis has been estimated to affect more than400,000 people in the UK. This type of the disease often begins starts when aperson is between 40 and 50 years old.
Like osteoarthritis, women are threetimes more likely to be affected than men however, rheumatoid andosteoarthritis are two different conditions. Rheumatoid arthritis takes placewhen the body’s immune system aims at affected joints, which results to painand swelling. The outer covering also known as the synovium of the joint is thefirst place affected. This then begins to spread across the joint, resulting tofurther swelling and a change in the shape of the joint. The bone and cartilagemay break down due to this.
People who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis canbegin to develop problems with other tissues and organs in their body as aresult of the disease.Out of those two, osteoarthritis is the most common type ofarthritis in the UK, as it affects around 8 million people. Osteoarthritis ismost likely to develop in adults who are in their late 40s or older. Women are alsomost likely to have this than men, the victims including people who have afamily history of the condition.
Nonetheless, osteoarthritis can happen at anyage as a result of an injury or other joint-related conditions, such as gout orrheumatoid arthritis. Initially, it affects the smooth cartilage lining of thejoint which makes movement more difficult than usual, leading to pain andstiffness. When the cartilage lining begins to roughen and thin out, the tendonsand ligaments have to work put in more work than usual. This can result to swellingand the formation of bony spurs, called osteophytes.
A critical loss ofcartilage can result to bones rubbing on each other, which then alters theshape of the joint and forces the bones out of their normal position. The jointsin the hands, spine, knees and hips are most likely to be affected than therest.An example of a common condition that leads to pain andinflammation in a joint is called arthritis. Around 10 million people havearthritis in the UK alone.
This is a disease that affects people of all ages,including children. There are two most common types of arthritis which are osteoarthritisand rheumatoid arthritis.Arthritis Antagonistic pairs of muscles create motion whenone (the prime mover) contracts and the other (the antagonist) relaxes. The quadriceps and hamstrings in the leg andthe biceps and triceps in the arm are examples of antagonistic pairs. The sliding filament theory states thatduring muscle contraction, the myosin (thick) filaments of muscle fibres glide past the actin(thin)filaments, while the two groups of filaments remain at a relativelycontinuous length.Muscle fibresheavily depend on the glycolytic energy system.
Type Ilia fibres are in the middle of the muscle fibre spectrum lies type lliafibres which produce more muscular force, are less fatigue resistance, andcontract at a faster speed than slow twitch fibres. Muscle fibres are composed of myocytes and they consist ofmyofibrils which are long rod-like structures, made up of different types ofprotein. These proteins are grouped into thin and thick segments calledfilaments. A tough band of fibrous connective tissue thatusually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension iscalled a tendon.
These share thesimilarity with ligaments that they are both composed of collagen.Ligaments join one bone to another bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone.The mostknown type of joint which is the synovial joint, includes a fluid-filled space thatresides between smooth cartilage pads at the end of articulating bones. A capsuleof tough dense irregular connective tissue lined with synovial membranesurrounds this joint. The outer layer of capsule may expand into thick, strongbands called ligaments.
These strengthen the joint and prevent unwanted motionand dislocations. Synovial membrane that lines the capsule creates the oilysynovial fluid that makes the joint smooth and reduces friction and wear.A bandof cartilage that binds bones together composes cartilaginous joints. Jointsbetween the ribs and costal cartilage, and the intervertebral disks of thespine are some examples of these joints.
Fibrousjoints are composed of tough collagen fibers and incorporate the sutures of theskull and the syndesmosis joint that holds the ulna and radius of the forearmtogether.A pivot joint is also referred to as a rotary joint(a freely moveable joint) as it onlyallows rotary movement around a single axis. The bone that moves rotates insidea ring that is created from a second bone and adjoining ligament.
A saddlejoint is A synovial joint where one of the bones creating the joint is shapedlike a saddle while the other one rests on it as a horse rider ride a horse iscalled a saddle joint. These joints provide the bones their stability whilealso making them more flexible than a hinge or gliding joint. The bone whichrests on the saddle shaped bone can move in an oval shape in correlation to theother bone, like a condyloid joint which is an ovoid articularsurface, or condyle that is collected into an elliptical cavity. This allowsmotion in two planes, letting flexion, circumduction, abduction, extension, andadduction take place.A hingejoint is a well-known joint that includes the ankle, elbow, and knee joints.These joints are created between two or more bones where the bones are limitedto only moving along one axis to flex or extend.
The interphalangeal joints arethe most basic hinge joints in the human anatomy. These reside between thephalanges of the fingers and toes. In these hinge joints, the bones can flex tominimize the angle between them – e.g.
when a person curls their toes – andextend to increase their angle to about 180 degrees when holding the foot orhand flat.A commontype of synovial joint formed between bones that collide at flat or nearly flatarticular surfaces is called a gliding joint. These joints permit the bones toglide past each other in any direction along the plane of the joint.
Thesejoints can also slightly rotate, but are limited by the shape of the bones andthe elasticity of the joint capsule surrounding them limit them.Anexample of a special class of synovial joints that like the highest freedom ofmotion in the body because of their unique structure is ball and socket joints.The only type of these joints in the human anatomy are the hip and shoulderjoints because a lot of movement is needed at the end of the body’s limbs andthere is also a large amount of musculature needed to move and support suchflexible joints. These joints are composed of two main components which are abone with a spherical head and a bone with a cup-like socket.A bone’s mineral content providesit a lot of compressive strength hence why it can withstand pushing forces. Theorganic matrix’s collagen fibres give the bone tensile strength so that it canresist pulling forces.
The calcium that resides in bones can be used to storeand top up the calcium levels in muscles so that they contract and blood sothat it doesn’t clot. Parathyroid and Calcitonin re two hormones that stay inthe blood and regulate the calcium levels of the body. When there is a decreaseof levels of calcium ions in the blood, parathyroid hormones are produced to stimulatethe osteoclasts activity. When there is an increase of calcium ions in theblood, calcitonin is produced to help deposit excess calcium salts in the bone. Medullary cavities are inside longbones.
These are aligned with endosteum which are connective tissue. Theycreate new bone cells and are filled with bone marrow. There are two types ofbone marrow – the yellow bone marrow and the red bone marrow. The yellow bonemarrow is mainly made up of fat cells for food and it reserves energy.
The redbone marrow is composed of stem cells that create red blood cells, platelets,and white blood cells. This bone marrow is most commonly found in the spongybone.The spongy bone is more flexiblethan it is dense. In comparison to the compact bone, it has 80% of structureand 20% of weight. This bone has a system of arches called named trabeculaewhich is made up of collagen and minerals and aids passage of blood vessels. The compact bone consists of unitscalled osteons which are hollow tubes that are composed of collagen fibres. Bloodvessels and nerves travel through a Haversian Canal here. It is also made up ofintertwined osteocytes which are cells of bone tissue.
These help maintain themineral content in the bone.The compact bone forms a rigidouter shell which is 80% of its weight and 20% of its structure. It is made upof mineral deposits such as calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2, calcium carbonateCaCO3, sodium, magnesium, and fluoride. Periosteum is a sheet of fibrous connectivetissue that covers the bone. This contains blood vessels and nerves.
Tendonsand ligaments are fixed to the periosteum to help it act as tape and stick itto the bone. A bone is composed of blood vessels, tendons,ligaments, osseous tissue, and nervous tissue. Usually, sesamoid bones areirregular or short bones that have been embedded in tendons. The Patella (kneecap) is the most obvious example of this as it resides in the Patella orQuadriceps tendon. The Pisiform (smallest of the Carpals) and the two smallbones at the base of the first Metatarsal are other examples of sesamoid bones.These bonesdon’t fall into other categories as they have non-uniform shapes.
Some greatexamples of these bones are the Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw).They mainly contain cancellous bone, with a thin outer layer of compact bone.Flat bones arestrong and flat plates of bone. Their job is to provide protection to thebodies vital organs and be bases for muscular attachment. A simple example of aflat bone is the Scapula (shoulder blade), the Sternum (breast bone) and thecranium (skull). Pelvis and Ribs are also considered as flat bones. Surfaces whichare nearer to the front and further to the back are made up of compact bone inorder to provide strength for protection with the centre including spongy boneand varying amounts of bone marrow.
The highest number of red blood cells areformed in flat bones in the human anatomy of adults.The longest bones in the body, such as the Femur, Humerus andTibia are called long bones however some of the smallest bones are which includethe Metacarpals, Metatarsals and Phalanges are also referred to as long bones. Shortbones are identified as being nearly as wide as they are long and have a mainfunction of providing support and stability with little movement. Some shortbone examples are the Carpals and Tarsals – the wrist and foot bones. Thesebones are made up of only a thin layer of compact, hard bone with cancellousbone on the inside including large amounts of bone marrow. · 8 bones in the legs – being femur, tibia, patella,and fibula· 2 pelvis bones· 6 bones in the arm and forearm · 4 bones in the shoulder girdle – clavicle andscapula being on each side· 58 bones in the hands – 16 carpals ,10 metacarpals,28 phalanges and 4 sesamoids· 56 bones in the feet being tarsals, metatarsals,phalanges, and sesamoidThe skeletal elements within the limbs are included in theappendicular skeleton. They support pectoraland pelvic girdles in the case of tetrapods. Appendicular is the adjective of appendagewhich is a noun, meaning a part is joined to something larger.
Theintervertebral disc resides in the middle of the adjacent vertebrae in thespine and is a simple example of a joint which lies in the axial skeleton asits very tough and only allows limited movement. 126of the 206 bones in the human anatomy compose the appendicular skeleton. Thereare:There are two functions of the axial skeleton. The first functionis it to support and protect the organs in the dorsal and ventral cavities andthe second function is to create a surface for the attachment of muscles.· 26 bones in the vertebral column being 24vertebrae, the sacrum and the coccyx· 25 thorax bones – being the sternum and 24 ribs · 29 bones in the head – 8 being cranial and 14 beingfacial bones and there are also 7 associated bones Axial meansaround an axis. The central core of the human body that houses and protects itsvital organs is called the axial skeleton.
The 80 bones that the axial skeletonconsists of are: Musculoskeletal Disorders