Perpetrators of sexual violenceagainst adult victims recognise that the opportunity to gain access to apotential victim is often through gaining an individual’s confidence.Adult grooming applies to any behaviour where anadult is prepared by a perpetrator, or perpetrators, of sexual violence so theyunwittingly allow abusive behaviour or exploitation to occur at a later date.Perpetrators overcome externalfactors by inserting themselves into a position which gives them valid reason togain the confidence of a victim, and the opportunity to have a prolongedtimeframe to get physically close to the victim that would not arouse suspicion.Statistics suggest a commonfactor in adult grooming cases is that the perpetrator is well known to the victim, and is able toexert power and control over them, such as a family member, domestic partner, close friend, doctor, or employer.
A doctor, forexample, may place a patient, who may be vulnerable, in a situation where theyare able to be isolated and creates an environment where they can use theirpower to undertake an unnecessary intimate physical examination without theirjudgement being questioned. Sexualviolence can occur within domestic relationships, such as marriage. Marital rape is defined asnon-consensual sexual contact perpetrated against a spouse, for example one partner manipulates the other to obtain sex throughemotional blackmail by saying “if you loved me, would have sex with me”.Poverty may force aperson into becoming a sex worker. The likelihood pf a perpetrator committingan act of sexual violence against a sex worker is increased, and justified bythe belief that a sex worker cannot be raped. This is evidenced in the typicalstereotypes and myths which surround the justification of sexual violence. Culture can also enable perpetrators of sexualviolence to gain access to their victim.
For example, Zimbabwean culture has acustom known as chimutsamapfiwa (wife inheritance), where when a wife dies obligation is passedto her sister to take her place.http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap6.pdfPerpetrators may also utilise socialmedia to make contact with victims, with the objective of persuading the victimto participate in online, and offline, sexual activity.
This may involve thesending of suggestive photographs of themselves; exposing themselves on a webcam;or arranging to meet in person.