perrine poetry

Topic: LiteratureSatire
Sample donated:
Last updated: December 17, 2019
paraphrase
restate in a different language

theme
the central idea of a poem

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denotations
the dictionary meaning of a word

connotations
what the word suggests beyond what it expresses

imagery
representation through language of sense experience

figure of speech
any way of saying something other than the ordinary way, saying one thing and meaning another

figurative language
language using figures of speech-cannot be taken only literally. any wave-like recurrence of motion/sound

simile
used to compare things that are essentially unalike, the comparison is expressed and often uses the words like, as, than, similar to, resembles, or seems

metaphor
compares to things that are essentially unalike, the comparison is created when a figurative term is substituted for or identified with the literal term

personification
personification- giving the attributes of a human being to an animal, an object, or a concept.

synecdoche
the use of a part as a whole

metonymy
the use of something closely related for the thing actually meant

apostrophe
similar to personification; addressing someone absent or dead or something nonhuman as if that person or thing were present and alive and could reply to what is being said

symbol
something that means more than what it is

allegory
a narrative or description that has a second meaning beneath the surface (the author’s major interest is the ulterior meaning)

paradox
– an apparent contradiction that is nevertheless somehow true

paradoxical situation
a paradox in the form of a situation

verbal paradox
a spoken paradox

paradoxical statement
the contradiction stems from one of the words being used figuratively or with more than one denotation

overstatement
hyperbole; exaggeration in the service of truth

understatement
saying less than one means

irony
an incongruity between the literal and implied meaning

verbal irony
saying the opposite of what one means

sarcasm
bitter or cutting speech intended to wound the feelings

satire
ridicule of human folly or vice, with the purpose of bringing about reform, or keeping others from falling into the same folly or vice

dramatic irony
the discrepancy is not between what the speaker says and what the speaker means but between what the speaker says and what the poem means-the speakers words may be straightforward, but by having that particular speaker say the words, the writer may be indicating to the reader an idea or attitude that opposes the words of the speaker

irony of situation
when a discrepancy exists between the actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate (what one anticipates and what actually happens)

allusion
a reference to something in history or previous literature

total meaning
the experience the poem communicates

prose meaning
the literal meaning of the poem

tone
the writer or speaker’s attitude toward the subject, the reader, or himself

extended metaphor
a comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem.

extended simile
the simile is sustained or developed through a considerable number of lines or through a whole poem

alliteration
the repetition of initial consonant sounds as in “safe and sound” or “fish or fowl”

assonance
repetition of vowel sounds as in “mad as a hatter” or “free and easy”

consonance
repetition of final consonant sounds as in ” short and sweet” or “odds and ends”

rhyme
the repetition of the accented vowel sound and any succeeding consonant sounds.

The combination of assonance and consonance to produce sound similarities.

masculine
rhyme sounds only involve one syllable as in “support and retort”

feminine
when rhyme sounds involve 2 or more syllables as in “turtle and fertile”

internal rhyme
one or more rhyming words are within the line

end rhyme
rhyming words are at the end of lines

approximate rhyme
(slant rhymes)- include words with any kind of similarity, from close to fairly remote, alliteration, assonance, and consonance are included under approximate rhyme

refrain
A repeated word, phrase, line, or group of lines, normally at some fixed position in a poem written in stanzaic form

anaphora
repetition of an opening word or phrase in a series of lines

rhythm
wavelike recurrence of motion or sound (in speech it is the natural rise and fall of language)

accented
the relative prominence given a syllable in relation to its neighbors

stressed
force of utterance, producing loudness

rhetorical stresses
used to make intentions clear (saying “I don’t believe YOU” is different than saying “I don’t beLIEVE you!”- the same words, the same sentence, different meanings)

end-stopped line
the end of a line corresponds with a natural speech pause

run-on line
the sense of the line moves on without pause into the next line

caesuras
pauses that occur within lines

free verse
except for its line arrangements there are no necessary differences between the rhythms of free verse and the rhythms of prose

prose poem
looks like prose, acts like prose, but is still considered poetry because of its attention to figurative language, imagery, and the concentration of meaning in an evocative way

meter
refers to the patterns that sounds follow (measure) sounds we can tap our foot to.

foot
basic unit of meter, one accented syllable plus one or two unaccented syllables

stanza
a group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem

metrical variations
call attention to some sounds because they depart from what is regular

substitution
replacing the regular foot with another one

extrametrical syllables
added at the beginnings or ends of lines

truncation
the omission of an unaccented syllable at either end of the line

scansion
the process of defining the metrical form of a poem

expected rhythm
a silent drumbeat set up in our minds

heard rhythm
the actual rhythm of the words

grammatical and rhetorical pauses
are signaled by a punctuation and provide an additional variation from its perfect regularity

blank verse
iambic pentameter, unrhymed

syllabic verse
Verse measured by the number of syllables rather than the number of feet per line

onomatopoeia
the use of words that sound like what they mean

phonetic intensives
words whose sounds connect to their meaning

euphony
smooth pleasant sounding sounds

cacophony
rough harsh sounds

synesthesia
presentation of one sense experience in terms usually associated with another sense

structure
the arrangement of ideas, images, thoughts, and sentences

form
external shape

continuous form
lines follow each other without formal grouping, only breaks being dictated by units of meaning, as paragraphs are in prose

stanzas
repeated units having the same number of lines

rhyme scheme
the pattern of rhyme between lines of a poem

fixed form
traditional pattern applied to whole poem-a sonnet and villanelle are considered a fixed poem

Italian sonnet
-structure: octave/sextet. Rhyme scheme: abba abba/cdc dcd (division is marked by space or shift word).

It usually takes the question and answer format or problem and resolution forma

English sonnet
otherwise known as the shakespearean sonnet, this consists of three quatrains and a concluding couplet. The three quatrains are three metaphorical statements, with the couplet being a concluding statement. Rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg.

quatrains
– four line stanza

couplet
2 lines

octave
8 lines

sestet
6 lines

villanelle
Complex pattern of repetition and rhyme, 19 lines (five 3-line stanzas *tercets and a 4-line concluding quatrain)

tercets
3 line stanza

sentimentality
indulgence in emotion for its own sake, or expression of more emotion than an occasion warrants

didactic
a primary purpose to teach or preach

iamb
u /

trochee
/ u

spondee
/ /

dactyl
/ u u

anapest
u u /

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