pharmacology

Topic: EntertainmentGames
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Last updated: May 27, 2019
ADME
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination
what are the six routes of drug administration?
oral, sublingual, rectal, parenteral, inhalation, topical
What are the two primary routes of drug administration?
enteral and parenteral
This type of drug administration consists of being or possessing a coating designed to pass through the stomach unaltered and to disintegrate in the intestines?
enteral
This type of drug administration is situated or occurring outside the intestine?
parenteral
This type of drug administration is described as enter mucous membrane under the tongue – such as nitroglycerin?
sublingual
A suppository is an example of this route of drug administration?
rectal
Parenteral drug administration consists of 8 types of administration, name some of these?
Injections, intracavitary instillation, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrathecal, intravenous injections and pumps
Aerosol is an example of what type of drug administration?
inhalation
Lotions,ointments, creams, transdermal patches, nitrogylcerin and hormones are what type of drug administration?
topical application
What is the target substance with which drugs interact called?
Receptor
Can a drug work on more than one receptor?
Yes
The desired and beneficial effect of a drug isreferred to as?
Response
The desired and beneficial effect of a drug isreferred to as?
Response
A drug is considered to have a local effect when it does what?
if the drug’s effect stays at the site of administration.
Name an example of a local effect drug?
topical
A drug is considered to have a systemic effect when it does what?
drug acts on many sites away from the administration site.
The “action” of a drug is what?
where and how a drug combines with tissues
When drug effects diminish during treatment and increasing amounts are needed to obtain the same effect -this is referred to as?
tolerance
physical and psychological dependence on andcraving for a drug is known as?
addiction
Controlled substances produce what?
tolerance and dependence
The combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each is known as?
additive action (1+1=2)
drugs that have less than an additive effect are known as?
antagonistic (1+1=0)
Synergistic (1+1=5) is described as?
when drugs cause a greater effect than the sum of the individual effects of the drugs
synergism means?
the drugs not only enhance their effect, but greatly enhance or almost multiply the effects of the drugs i.

e. penicillin with streptomycin (2 antibiotics) to treat bacterial endocarditis.

potentiation (a+b=B) means
when drug a enhances the effect of drug b into a Capital B
idiosyncrasy is defined as?
Any unexpected effect that appears in the patient after drug administration
Acute hypersensitivity with asthma and shock caused by penicillin is known as?
anaphylaxis
poisonous and potentially dangerous effects of drugs is known as?
drug toxicity
any unexpected effect that appears in the patient after drug administration is called?
idiosyncrasy
idiosyncrasy is an example of an unpredictable type of ?
drug toxicity
Anaphylaxia requires what in order to occur?
previous exposure
Iatrogenic is defined as what?
effect caused by treatment
this effect can occur as a result of mistakes or unrecognized individual sensentivity?
iatrogenic
Harmful, unexpected reaction to a drug?
adverse reaction
toxic effects from the result of a drug usage is known as?
side effect
reaction to or the consequence of taking a particular medication such as chemo is known as?
side effect
specific situations when the use of a drug can be dangerous or ill advised is known as?
contraindication
The lack of a beneficial response of a drug?
resistance
The use of any drug in a way that deviates from the manner in which it was prescribed is?
abuse
Movement of a drug from the administration site into the blood is called?
absorption
Absorption of a drug is usually in?
the gut or the alimentary canal
Transportation of a drug to the other body tissues is called?
distribution
How well the body breaks down the drug or the how well the drug is metabolized is known as?
metabolism
When a drug is eliminiated from the body through either urine or feces is known as?
elimination
When a drug is eliminiated from the body through either urine or feces is known as?
elimination
A drug’s strength is known as?
potency
the degree to which a drug can produce a certain effect and means the degree to which a drug is able to induce an effect is known as?
efficacy
__________ is key in determining the amount of drug needed, the timing of the doses and corresponding dosage in assessing the risk of side effects?
absorption
The time the total amount of drug diminishes by one half is known as?
half life
A large dose given rapidly at the beginning of treatment to reach therapeutic level quickly?
loading dose
absorption of amoxicillin can be increased when taken with?
antacids
Ciprofloxin is not absorbed well when taken with things that contain?
a lot of calcium, magnesium or iron such as vitamins and dairy products
When many drugs are in the bloodstream at once, they may compete to bind with proteins – this is known as?
drug interaction
Most drugs bind with?
proteins
Obesity and diseases that cause fluid retention will?
change drug distribution
older adults with dementia may have increased sensitivity ot unusual reactions to drugs that ?
affect the nervous system
When a drug is changed or transformed is has been ?
metabolized
A drug must be __________ before it can be removed from the body?
metabolized
The body metabolizes a drug to make it __________ so that it can be esaily eliminated from the body?
inactive or turn it into a molecule
Liver and kidney function decreases with age and has what effect?
slows down drug metabolism and elimination
fluoxetine (Prozac) is an?
antidepressant
Certain foods such as grapefruit juice may?
slow down metabolism of medication
St. Johns wort is known to ?
speed up drug metabolism
_______ is a mild analgesic?
tylenol
________ is/are a narcotic analgesic?
codeine, hydrocodone
An example of an NSAID would be?
aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen.
An example of a general anesthetic would be?
ether, nitrous oxide, pentothal
Example of a local anesthetic would be?
lidocaine (Xylocaine), Procaine (novocaine)
Chemical substances that fight bacterial infections are known as?
antibiotics
Antibiotics do what?
either kill bacteria or keep them from reproducing
Example of an antifungal would be?
Lotrimin, Monistat
Example of an antitubercular drug is?
Rifadin (rifampin), Isoniazid (INH) & ethambutol
Example of a cephalosporin?
Ceftin
Example of a cephalosporin?
Ceftin
Example of a cephalosporin?
Ceftin
Example of an Erythromycin?
Biaxin
Example of penicillin?
amoxicillin
Example of Quinolones?
wide spectrum antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin and Levaquin
Example of Sulfa Drugs or Sulfonamides?
Bactrim
Example of tetracyclines?
doxycycline
This medicine is used to treat chickenpox as well as symptoms associated w herpes infections that may affect the skin, eyes, mouth, genitals or brain?
Acyclovir
This medicine speeds up the healing of herpes sores, but does not kill the virus?
Acyclovir
This is an antiviral med that can be used to treat and prevent the flu?
Amantadine
This medicine is only effective in treating one type of flu virus, influenza A?
Amantadine
These medicines are antiviral drugs prescribed for adults who develop chronic hepatitis?
Ribavirin and interferon
These meds prevent clotting or coagulation of blood?
Anticoagulants
An example of an anticoagulant?
Coumadin (warfarin), Lovenox and heparin
Another name for anticoagulant is?
blood thinner
These meds reduce the tendency of platelets to stick together?
antiplatlets
An example of an antiplatelet med?
aspirin
These meds are used to control seizures?
anticonvulsants
An example of an anticonvulsant?
Tegretol (carbamazepine).
This medication is also used to treat trigeminal neuralgia?
Tegretol (carbamazepine).
Example of antidepressants?
Paxil and Zoloft
Example of anti-alzheimer med?
Aricept (donepezil)
Example of antidiabetic med?
Insulin
Example of antihistamines?
Zyrtec, Benadryl, Allegra, Claritin
Example of anti-osteoporosis med?
bisphosphonates-alendronate AKA Fosamax
SERM stands for?
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator
Example of a SERM med?
tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
This medication increases the force of the heart’s contractions which is beneficial in heart failure or irregular heart beats?
Digitalis preparations AKA Digoxin and Digitoxin and Lanoxin
This drug dilates blood vessels?
ACE inhibitors
This drug works by preventing angiotensin from reacting on receptors in blood vessels and is used by patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors?
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
Example of Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker?
ARBs, AT-2, Atacand, Teveten, Avapro, Cozaar, Micardis and Diovan
These meds decease muscular tone in blood vessels leading to vasodilation and are prescribed for angina, hypertension, arrhythmias and heart attacks?
Beta blockers AKA Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
Example of a Beta Blocker?
Acebutolol, Atenolol, tenormin, Metoprolol, Lopressor XL, Nadolol, Propranolol, Sotalol and Timolol
This med dilates blood vessels and lowers blood pressure and treats angina and arrhythmia?
Calcium channel blockers AKA calcium antagonists or calcium blockers
Examples of a calcium channel blocker?
Amlodipine, Norvasc, Lotrel, Diltiazem, Cardizem, Tiazac, Felodipine, Plendil, Nifedipine, Verapamil, Procardia, Adalat
Calcium channel blockers also treat?
HTN, afib, angina, migraines, and Raynaud’s disease
Example of cholesterol binding drugs?
Questran and Colestid
Examples of cholesterol lowering drugs or statins?
statins, resins, nicotinic acid (niacin), gemfibrozil, clofibrate
The most common antihyperlipidemic is?
the “statin” drugs
Diuretics are also known as?
water pills
Examples of a diuretic?
Amiloride, Bumex, Diuril, Hygroton, Furosemide, Lasix, HCTZ, aldactone, spironolactone
This med is a male hormone replacement?
Androgen
This drug interferes with androgens and are used in prostate cancer?
Antiandrogens
These drugs effect female hormones?
estrogens
These drugs reduce the amount of estrogen in the blood and are effective against breast cancer?
aromatase inhibitors
SERMs have ________ like effects on bone?
estrogen
Therapy for abnormal uterine bleeding?
Progestins
Used for the treatment of acromegaly?
somatostatin – growth hormone release inhibiting factor
These meds neutralize hydrochloric symptoms?
Antacids – Rolaids
Acid reducing drugs are also known as?
H2 blockers
Examples of anti-acidity med?
Prilosec, Maalox, Mylanta, Rolaids, Tums, Tagamet, Pepcid, Axid, Zantac
Example of an antidiarrheal?
Lomotil
Example of antinauseant?
Reglan
Anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) drug example?
Humira
Humira treats?
autoimmune disease such as Crohn’s
These meds relieve constipation?
cathartics – Peri-Colace
Example of bronchodilator?
albuterol, Proventil, Maxair, Alupent
Example of a leukotriene modifier?
Zyflo
Example of an inhaled steroid?
Aerobid, Azmacort
Example of oral or IV steroids?
Decadron, Medrol, prednisone
Example of a sedative-hypnotic?
Halcion, Restoril, Luminal
Example of a stimulant?
Caffeine, Ritalin
Example of a minor tranquilizer?
Xanax, alprazolam, BuSpar, Valium, Lorazepam (Ativan)
Example of a major tranquilizer or antipsychotic or neuroleptic agent?
haloperidol, loxapine, pimozide
This narcotic analgesic whose generic name is meperdine treats moderate pain and goes by the brand name of?
Demerol
This narcotic analgesic whose generic name is oxycodone and treats severe pain goes by the brand name of?
Percodan, OxyContin
This narcotic analgesic goes by the generic name of methadone and is used for drug detox or severe pain – the brand name is?
Dolophine
This non-narcotic analgesic whose generic name is acetaminophen treats mild to moderate pain – the brand name is?
Tylenol
This non-narcotic analgesic whose generic name is naproxen treats mild to moderate pain – the brand name is?
Aleve
This non-narcotic analgesic whose generic name is ibuprofen treats mild to moderate pain – the brand name is?
Advil, Motrin
This is a local anesthetic whose generic name is lidocaine and is used as a topical or nerve block – brand name is ?
Xylocaine
This is a local anesthetic whose generic name is dibucaine and is used as a nerve block or spinal – brand name is ?
Nupercainal
This is a local anesthetic whose generic name is procain and is used as a nerve block?
Novocain
This is a general anesthetic whose generic name is halothane and is used for MAJOR surgery – brand name is?
Fluothane
This is a general anesthetic whose generic name is propofol and is used for MAJOR surgery – brand name is?
Diprivan
This general anesthetic whose generic name is thiopental and is used for MINOR surgery – brand name is?
Pentothal
These are also narcotic analgesics?
Duragesic (fentanyl) and Darvocet
This antiangina whose generic name is nitroglycerin relieves pain or angina pectoris – brand name is?
Nitrostat
This antiangina whose generic name is diltiazem controls angina pectoris – brand name is?
Cardizem
This antiangina whose generic name is isosorbide controls angina pectoris – brand name is?
Imdur
This anti-anxiety/anxiolytic whose generic name is paroxetine treats panic disorder and social anxiety disorder – brand name is?
Paxil
This anti-anxiety/anxiolytic whose generic name is lorezepam and relieves anxiety – brand name is?
Ativan
This anti-anxiety/anxiolytic whose generic name is alprazolam and treats anxiety disorders and panic attacks – the brand name is?
Xanax
This antiarrhythmic whose generic name is propranolol treats abnormal heart rhythms?
Inderal
This antiarrhythmic whose generic name is disopyramide treats abnormal heart rhythm – brand name is?
Norpace
This antiarrhythmic whose generic name is ibutilide treats abnormal heart rhythms – brand name is?
Corvert
This anti-asthma med whose generic name is metaproterenol and is used for asthma and bronchospasms – brand name is?
Alupent
This anti-asthma med whose generic name is fluticasone is used for prophylactic therapy using systemic corticosteroids – brand name is?
Flovent
This anti-asthma med whose generic name is ipratropium and treats bronchospasm associated with COPD – brand name is?
Atrovent
This class of meds works by slowing activity in the brain to allow for relaxation?
anti-anxiety – Ativan, Lorazepam
Lorazepam is in a class of meds called?
benzodiazepines
Muscle relaxants are also commonly classed as?
anti-anxiety medications
These are common muscle relaxants?
Skelaxin, Soma, Flexeril
This drug is considered an antispasmodic to relax spastic or rigid muscles in either spine muscles or spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, ALS (Lou Gehrig disease)?
Baclofen
Singulair an anti-asthma drug belongs to a class of drugs known as?
Leukotriene inhibitors
This drug is an anti-asthma drug as well as an anti-allergic medication that blocks certain allergy mediators and reduces swelling, sneezing and runny nose?
Singulair
This drug is a combination inhaler?
Advair
This antibiotic whose generic name is ciprofloxacin and treats infections of the skin, lungs, airways, bones, joints and urinary tract – brand name is?
Cipro
This antibiotic whose generic name is amoxicillin treats pneumonia, bronchitis, gonorrhea, ENT infections, urinary tract and skin – brand name is?
Amoxil
This antibiotic whose generic name is sulfamethoxazole & trimethoprim treats urinary tract, lung, ears and intestinal infections – brand name?
Bactrim
This anticholesterol whose generic name is atorvastatin reduces lipids in the blood – brand name is ?
Lipitor
This anticholesterol whose generic name is rosuvastatin reduces lipids in the blood – brand name is ?
Crestor
This anticholesterol whose generic name is simvastatin reduces lipids in the blood – brand name is ?
Zocor
This anticoagulant whose generic name is clopidogrel prevents harmful blood clots that may cause heart attacks or strokes – brand name is?
Plavix
This anticoagulant whose generic name is warfarin prevents blood clots from forming or growing larger in blood and blood vessels – brand name is?
Coumadin
This anticoagulant whose generic name is anisindione prevents and treats blood clots in the veins and treats pulmonary embolisms – brand name is?
Miradon
This med is used to treat certain infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis and sinus, urinary tract, kidney, prostate and skin infections?
levofloxacin (Levaquin)
This medication is also used to prevent anthrax?
levofloxacin (Levaquin)
Levofloxacin (Levaquin) is in a class of meds called?
fluoroquinolones
These meds WILL NOT work for colds, flu or viral infections?
antibiotics
These meds are used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, bronchitis, infections of the ears, sinuses, skin and throat as well as to prevent disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection?
Biaxin or Clarithormycin
Clarithromycin is in a class of meds called?
macrolide antibiotics
This med is used to treat bacterial infections including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections, acne, infections of the skin, genital and urinary systems as well as H.pylori, alternative treatment for Lyme disease and prevention of anthrax?
tetracyclines/doxycycline
This antidepressant whose generic name is fluoxetine treats major depressive disorder, bulimia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder – brand name is?
Prozac
This antidepressant whose generic name is sertraline treats depression, certain types of social anxiety conditions, PTSD and panic disorder – brand name is?
Zoloft
This antidepressant whose generic name is escitalopram treats anxiety and major depressive disorder – brand name is?
Lexapro
This antidiabetic whose generic name is glipizide treats DM Type 2 – brand name is?
Glucotrol XL
This antidiabetic whose generic name is metformin treats DM Type 2 – brand name is?
Glucophage
This antidiabetic whose generic name is pioglitazone treats DM Type 2 – brand name is?
Actos
This anti-emetic whose generic name is dimenhydrinate works by preventing problems with body balance – brand name is?
Dramimine
This antiemetic whose generic name is prochlorperazine is used to control severe nausea and vomiting – brand name is ?
Compazine
This anti-emetic whose generic name is ondansetron is used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy – works by blocking serotonin – brand name is?
Zofran
Lexapro is in a class of drugs called?
SSRI – selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
This drug is used for depression as well as to prevent bedwetting in children?
Imipramine
Imipramine is in a class of drugs called?
tricyclic antidepressants
Tofranil is used to treat?
depression
While this medicine treats depression, OCD, panic attacks, PTSD and social anxiety disorder it also treats premenstrual dysphoric disorder?
Zoloft – Sertraline
Sertraline is in a class of antidepressants called?
SSRIs
This med is used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia in adults and teenagers 13 years of age or older?
Risperdal – Risperidone
Examples of antipsychotics?
lithium, Abilify, risperidone (Risperdal) Zyprexa, Clozaril, Seroquel, Invega
Examples of antidiabetic meds?
Actos, Avandia, DiaBeta, Glucotrol, Glucovance
This is a short acting insulin and is the ONLY insulin that can be administered intravenously?
Humulin R, Novolin R aka regular insulin
Example of a rapid acting insulin?
Humalog, Novolog, Apidra
Example of an intermediate acting insulin?
Humulin N, Novolin N
Example of long acting insulin that mimics natural insulin?
Lantus, Levemir
Mixed insulin is dosed?
twice daily
Examples of insulin mixtures that have quick onset and longer duration because they are short-acting insulin mixed with intermediate acting insulin?
Novolog Mix 70/30, Humalog Mix 75/25, Humulin 70/30
This antifungal whose generic name is clotrimazole treats yeast infections of the vagina, mouth and skin – brand name is?
Gyne-Lotrimin
This antifungal whose generic name is terbinafine treats fungal infections of the toes and fingernails – brand name is?
Lamisil
This antifungal whose generic name is fluconazole treaets SEVERE fungal infections – brand name is?
Diflucan
This antihistamine whose generic name is diphenhydramine is in hypersensitivity reactions – brand name is?
Benadryl
This antihistamine whose generic name is ioratidine is used in allergic rhinitis – brand name is ?
Claritin
This antihistamine whose generic name is hydrozyzine is used for pruritus – brand name is ?
Vistaril
This antihypertensive whose generic name is enalapril is an ACE inhibitor and blocks formation of angiotensin II – brand name is?
Vasotec
This antihypertensive whose generic name is nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker and relaxes blood vessels so the heart does not pump so hard – brand name is?
Procardia
this antihypertensive whose generic name is metoprolol is a beta blocker that relaxes blood vessels so heart does not pump so hard – brand name is?
Lopressor
Examples of antifungal drugs?
Lotrimin, Monistat
This NSAID whose generic name is naproxen treats acute arthritis – brand name?
Naprosyn
This NSAID whose generic name is celecoxib inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, blocks only one enzyme showing decrease in pain with a lowr risk of GI events – brand name?
Celebrex
This NSAID whose generic name is flurbiprofin treats rheumatoid and osteoarthritis – brand name is?
Ansaid
This chemo drug is used on myelomas and solid tumors?
Cytoxan
This chemo drug is mainly used in breast cancer treatment?
tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
This chemo drug is used for treatment of metastatic carcinoma?
cisplatin (Platinol)
This drug prevents and treats osteoporosis?
Actonel
This drug prevents and treats osteoporosis?
Boniva
This drug prevents and treats osteoprosis?
Boniva
This antitussive makes the cough more productive, reducing frequency?
Robitussin
This antitussive reduces cough reflex?
Tessalon
This antitussive supresses cough reflex?
Robitussin AC
This antiviral treats herpes infection?
Zovirax
This antiviral is used for HIV exposure?
Retrovir
This antiviral treats influenz type A virus?
Symmetrel
This cardiac med is used to treat CHF, afib and atrial flutter?
Lanoxin, digoxin, Tambocor, Norpace, flecainide, disopyramide
this laxative holds water in the stool?
Metamucil
This laxative stimulates intestinal mucosa?
Ex-Lax and Dulcolax
This mineral affects bone formation, blood clotting, nervous system and heart activity?
calcium (Caltrate)
This mineral affects hemoglobin formation and some enzyme function?
iron (Feosol, Fergon)
This mineral affects cardiovascular and nervous system function, fluid balance?
sodium (Baxer Saline Sol)
This radiopharmaceutical is used to treat thyroid cancer?
iodine-131 (Ioditope)
This radiopharmaceutical is used to treat metastatic bone pain?
Metastron
This radiopharmaceutical treats brain disease and tumors?
Spectamine
This antigout drug prevents gout?
Aloprim (allopruinol)
This antigout drug treats gout and gouty arthritis?
probenacid (Benemid)
This antigout drug treats gout and high uric acid?
Uloric
This vitamin treats night blindness?
vitamin A
This vitamin treats anemia veriberi and neuritis?
Vitamin B
This vitamin treats scurvy
Vitamin C
This vitamin treats rickets?
Vitamin D
This vitamin prevents blood clots and artery blockage?
Vitamin E
This vitamin treats hypoprothrombinemia?
Vitamin K
This med treats megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias?
folic acid (Folacin)
This med treats pellagra?
niacin (Niaspan)
This vitamin is considered to be an anti-aging vitamin?
Vitamin D3
This vitamin helps the body absorb calcium?
Vitamin D
These meds are used to manage shock and dangerous drops in blood pressure?
Ultiva, Minipress, Aramine
In ICD-10 underdosing is?
no longer a poisoning

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