Language in which the writer means something more than what is literally stated.
From Greek “good saying”, substitution of an indirect statement for a direct one, often with the intention of sounding less offensive or more refined (death -> passing away)
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figures of speech, Words, and phrases acquire special meaning, or special weight, because of their special syntactical arrangement., which deviates from the standard syntactical order
figures of thought (images), A word or phrase is used in a consciously different or figurative sense
Explicit comparison between two essentially unlike things, using “as (if)” or “like”
rhetorical figure which “equates” one thing with another, the speaker treats one thing as if it were another, without using “as” or “like”, comparison is implicit
Figure of speech in which a term closely related to sth serves as its substitute
figure of speech that uses a part to stand for the whole or the whole to stand for a part
Human qualities are attributed to sth non-human
a concrete object is evoked that points to an abstract meaning
Term for variety of short poetic forms, usually revolves around a single event, impression or idea; normally expresses feelings and thoughts of the speaker in a highly personal manner
tells a story with a clearly defined plot
two rhymed lines of a verse
a couplet that is set aside or self-contained
stanza that consists of four lines
unrhymed iambic pentameter, commonly used for long poems
rhymed iambic pentameter (aa bb cc dd ee)
reflects the stress and delivery patterns of natural speech, but has no regular metre or even line length
form of narrative poetry, relates a story through action and dialogue, often tragic, typically four-line stanzas with alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and trimeter with abcb rhyme scheme (ballad metre)
form of narrative poetry in which a single speaker speaks to a silent audience, personality of speaker is exposed without him/her being aware of what s/he reveals
poems that use the physical arrangement of words on a page to mirror meaning, takes advantage of visible shapes of letters and words to create a picture
literary movement in early 20th cent., attempts to reduce and condense poetry to essential “images”, extreme economy of expression, use of as few words as possible, often conveying ideas and emotions indirectly but suggestively through images
An elaborately crafted fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter
contains an eight-line stanza (octave), with an abbaabba rhyme-scheme, followed by a six-line stanza (sestet) of cdecde; The two are thematically separated by the volta (“turn”), i.e.
a shift in meaning, view, etc.. The octave often raises a question or states a problem or proposition that is answered in the sestet
consists of three quarains and a couplet, rhyme scheme abab/cdcd/efef/gg
witty and concise couplet at end of Shakespearean sonnet (gg)
abstract idea that is revealed through the manner in which a work deals with its subject, described in abstract terms, often become apparent through motifs
Minimal thematic unit, a discrete thing, image, situation, event or phrase that is repeated in a work of literature
of words and phrases, can highlight words, and/or create a particular rhythm
effect produced when there is a discrepancy between two levels of meaning
deliberate contrast between what is said and what is meant
a question asked for the sake of manipulation or persuasion, no answer is expected
The repetition of identical syllables or sounds
form of internal rhyme, repetition of consonants at the beginning of words
form of internal rhyme, the recurrence of identical or similar vowel sounds in verse
A type of rhyme which is based on syllables with identical spelling but different pronunciation.
The use of a word that sounds like its meaning, such as “pop”, “hiss”, “buzz”, “cuckoo”. In poetry, it is used to emphasise the meaning of a word through its acoustic dimension
An underlying regular beat in a poem, and an element of its acousticrhythmical dimension.
Stressed and unstressed syllables of a line of poetry can be organised in feet
form of metre with three stressed syllables to the line (=3 feet)
four stressed syllables (=4 feet)
five stressed syllables (=5 feet)
six stressed syllables/feet
segment of verse composed of stressed and unstressed syllables
an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one (?¯?).
a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one (¯??).
two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed one (??¯?).
a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed ones (¯???).
analysis of poetic metre by indicating stresses, pauses and rhyme patterns
a pause in a line of verse, often indicated by punctuation and thus corresponding with the end of a clause or sentence
term for inclusion of a single irregular foot in a line of verse that is otherwise regular