poetry notes

Topics: FamilyEmotions

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Last updated: November 28, 2019

POETRY
A very concentrated form of writing which is imaginative, emotional, and thought provoking

PROSE
Ordinary language of man in speaking or writing (Ex. memoirs, short stories, letters). This is not a poetic device

SPEAKER
the voice through which the poem is told; not necessarily the poet; poets do often write as themselves and speak directly to the reader

FREE VERSE
Poetry that does not require rhythm or a rhyme scheme

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
Language meant to be interpreted imaginatively, not literally. (similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, etc.) Ex. I am a turtle with no shell.

IMAGERY
Words or phrases that focus on any of the five senses; draw word pictures; a mental picture created with words; same as sensory details and snapshots in prose writing

SIMILE
Compares two different things using either like or as

METAPHOR
Comparison of unrelated “things” by saying one thing is another; comparing two different things without using like or as

IMPLIED METAPHOR
Comparison of unrelated things that is not directly stated

EXTENDED METAPHOR
A metaphor that goes beyond one comparison

PERSONIFICATION
The giving of human characteristics to an animal, object, or idea

ALLUSION
A reference to a person or event in history or previous literature; usually a comparison of a thing or person

HYPERBOLE
An exaggeration or overstatement used for emphasis

UNDERSTATEMENT
opposite of hyperbole/overstatement; less than what we know to be true

SYMBOL
When an object has a deeper meaning than what it really is

OXYMORON
figure of speech that seems contradictory

SENTIMENTALITY
overly emotional ideas, indulging in emotions for its own sake; too much emotional content

FORM
the way a poem looks on a page

STANZA
A division in a poem named for the number of lines it contains. A group of lines in a poem considered as a unit. Each stanza states and develops a single idea, Paragraph of poetry

VERSE
A name for a line of traditional poetry written with rhythm

REFRAIN
a phrase that is repeated at regular times throughout the poem like a chorus

REPETITION
The use of any element of language—a sound, a word, a phrase, a grammatical structure—more than once to stress ideas or to create memorable sound effects

ALLITERATION
the repeating of beginning consonant sounds

CONSONANCE
Repetition of consonant sounds. This is a lot like alliteration except it includes consonant sounds anywhere within the words, not just at the beginning

ASSONANCE
Repetition of vowel sounds

ONOMATOPOEIA
The use of words that imitate sounds. The sounds make you think of its meaning as in buzz and zing

RHYTHM
The regular beat of a traditional poem

RHYME
Repetition of sounds at the end of words

END RHYME
Rhyme at the end of a line

INTERNAL RHYME
Rhyme within a line

RHYME SCHEME
Regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem; a chart of end rhyme is indicated by letters of the alphabet

COUPLET
Two rhyming lines that are together

EXACT RHYME
Rhyming sounds that are totally alike, except for beginning consonants

HALF/SLANT RHYME
Imperfect rhyme where the rhyme is similar but does not exactly match; imperfect rhyme where the vowels do not match each other

NARRATIVE POETRY
Poems which tell a story

EPIC
narrative poetry which focuses on an adventure or hero

BALLAD
a narrative poem, meant to be sung, written in a story; usually about a person

LYRIC POETRY
presents thoughts and feelings of a single speaker (i.

e. sonnet, elegy, ode, free verse)

ODE
type of lyric poem that addresses broad, serious themes such as justice, truth, or beauty

LIMERICK
a fixed poem—always has five lines; humorous

HAIKU
Japanese poetry

BLANK VERSE
a poem with no rhyme scheme

FREE VERSE
Poetry that does not require rhythm or a rhyme scheme

SONNET
A poem with 14 lines of iambic pentameter

IRONY
unexpected twist in a situation actual intent is expressed in words which carry the opposite meaning; not as harsh as SARCASM

TONE
the emotional coloring or attitude of the work

MOOD
A feeling that a poem conveys to the reader; the atmosphere of a literary work

DENOTATION
dictionary definition

CONNOTATION
second meaning; implications we get from words

CUT TO THE BONE
Get to the point; Leave out the unimportant details; Use as few words as possible to convey your message

POWER OF “I”
“I” gives the audience someone to connect with and relate to

STRONG VERBS
Avoid weak verbs in poetry

SPECIFIC NOUNS
Avoid weak and indefinite nouns

ECHOING
Some line or phrase is repeated or refers back to the title or former line or phrase; great to use at the end to refer back to title

ELEMENT OF SURPRISE
Save a surprise until the end of the poem

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