Poetry Term 3

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Last updated: November 28, 2019

Ballad
Traditionally, it is a song transmitted orally from generation to generation that tells a story and that eventually is written down. They cannot be traced to a particular author or group of authors.

Literary Ballad
a narrative poem that is written in deliberate imitation of the language, form, and spirit of the traditional ballad.

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Onomatopoeia
A term referring to the use of a word that resembles the sound it denotes. Buzz, rattle, bang, and sizzle are all examples. It can consist of more than one word; writers sometimes create lines or whole passages in which the sound of the words helps to convey their meanings.

Alliteration
The repetition of the same consonant sounds in a sequence of words, usually at the beginning of a word or stressed syllable: “descending dew drops”; “Luscious lemons.” It is based on the sound of letters rather than the spelling of words. It can intensify ideas by emphasizing key words.

Assonance
The repetition of internal vowel sounds in nearby words that do not end that same, for example, “asleep under a tree” or “each evening.

” Similar endings result in rhyme, as in “asleep in the deep.” It is a strong means of emphasizing important words in a line.

Euphony
(“good sound”) refers to language that is smooth and musically pleasant to the ear.

Cacophony
(“bad sound”) Language that is discordant and difficult to pronounce, such as “Player Piano.

” It may be unintentional in the writer’s sense of music, or it may be used consciously for deliberate dramatic effect.

Rhyme
the repetition of identical or similar concluding syllables in different words, most often at the ends of lines. Predominantly innately a function of sound rather than spelling.

Eye Rhyme
words that look alike but do not rhyme at all.

End Rhyme
the most coming form of rhyme in poetry; the rhyme comes at the end of the lines.

Internal Rhyme
places at least one of the rhymes words within the line as in “dividing and gliding and sliding”.

Masculine Rhyme
describes the rhymes of single syllable words such as grade or shade. Also occurs when rhyming words of more than one syllable, when the same sound occurs in a final stressed syllable as in defend and contend.

Feminine Rhyme
consists of a rhymed stressed syllable followed by one or more identical unstressed syllables as in butter/clutter.

Exact Rhyme
share the same stressed vowel sound as well as sharing sounds that follow the vowel.

Near Rhyme
the sounds are almost but not exactly alike (ex: consonance)

Consonance
consists of identical consonant sounds preceded by different vowel sounds (ex: home, same; worth, breath)

Rhythm
term used to refer to the recurrence of stressed and unstressed sounds in poetry.

Stress/Accent
The emphasis, or accent, given a syllable in pronunciation.

Meter
when a rhythmic pattern of stresses recurs in a poem. Metrical patterns are determined by the type and number of feet in a line of verse.

Prosody
Overall metrical structure of a poem

Scansion
the process of measuring the stresses in a line of verse in order to determine the metrical pattern of the line.

Foot
The metrical unit by which a line of poetry is measured. A usually consists of one stressed and one or two unstressed syllables.

Iambic Foot
Consists of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable.

“away” is the most common metrical foot in English poetry.

Trochaic Foot
Consists of one stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. example: “lovely”

Anapestic Foot
Two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable. example: “understand”

Dactylic Foot
one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables ex: desperate

Spondee
A foot consisting of two stressed syllables (“dead set”) but is not a sustained metrical foot and is used mainly for variety or emphasis.

Rising Meter
Refers to metrical feet which move from unstressed to stressed sounds such as the iambic foot and the anapestic foot.

Falling Meter
refers to the metrical feet that move from stressed to unstressed sounds, such as trochaic foot and the dactylic foot

Line
A sequence of words printed as a separate entity on the page. In poetry, lines are usually measured by the number of feet they contain.

The names for various line lengths are as a follows: Monometer: one foot Dimeter: two feet Trimeter: three feet Tetrameter: four feet Pentameter: five feet Hexameter: six feet Heptameter: seven feet Octameter: eight feetThe number of feet in a line, coupled with the name of the foot, describes the metrical qualities of the line.

Iambic Pentameter
A metrical pattern in poetry which consists of five iambic feet per line. An iamb, or iambic foot, consists of one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.

Blank Verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter. is the English verse form closest to the natural rhythms of English speech and therefore is the most common pattern found in traditional English narrative and dramatic poetry from Shakespeare to the early twentieth century.

Masculine Ending
line ending with a stressed syllable

Feminine Ending
line ending with an unstressed syllable

Cesura
A pause within a line of poetry that contributes to the rhythm of the line.

A can occur anywhere within a line and need not be indicated by punctuation. Often indicated by a double vertical line.

End-Stopped Line
A poetic line that has a pause at the end. lines reflect normal speech patterns and are often marked by punctuation

Enjambment
when one line ends without a pause and continues into the next line for its meaning. Also known as a run-on line.

Anaphora
repetition of a word or words at the beginning of the 2 or more verses, clauses, or sentences

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