lines of verse in which both grammatical structure and the sense reach completion at the end of the line
a form of irony in which something is intentionally represented as less than in fact it is
figure of speech which exaggerates for effect
a form of paradox made for sharp emphasis — two contradictory words (i.
e. wise fool)
a figure of speech in which something dead or not human is addressed as if it were alive, present, and could reply
use of a part for a whole (i.e. all hands on deck)
use of a thing closely related for the thing actually meant (i.e.
those guns will fire meaning the police will for the gun)
using a concrete object to represent an abstract concept — must work literally and figuratively (i.e. dove for peace)
narrative or description that has a second meaning beneath the surface
examine the title before reading the poem — if it has the name of the first line, the poem had no title
restate the poem in your own words (literal/denotation) look for: syntactical units (complete sentences rather than line by line) and enjambment v.s end stopped lines
connotation (from TPCASTT)
examine the poem for meaning beyond the literal look for: diction, imagery, symbolism, irony, allusion and effects of sound devices
examine both speaker’s and poet’s attitudes — poet and persona are different in most poetry look for: (speaker’s attitude towards self, other characters, and the subject) (attitudes of characters other than the speaker) (poet’s attitude toward speaker, other characters, subject, and, finally, toward the reader)
note shifts in speakers attitudes Look for: occasion of poem (time and place), key words, punctuation, stanza divisions, changes in line and/or stanza length, changes in meter patterns, irony, effect of structure on meaning
title (round 2)
examine title again (if it is really the poet’s title) this time on an interpretive level
first list what the poem is about – subjects. these are most often single nouns. Then, determine what the poet is saying about each of those subjects.
Remember, state themes in complete sentences, and they are not factual!