Poetry

lyric poetry
expresses an individual’s experience and emotions

dramatic poetry
dramatizes action through dialogue or monologue

narrative poetry
tells a story

Aristotle (384–322 BC)
one of Plato’s pupils who had a different opinion of the importance of poetry; believed that poetry helped people view their world not from the perspective of the past or present but with regard to what might be possible in the future

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834)
an English poet of the Romantic period of literature who agreed with Aristotle’s view of poetry; believed that poetry was important because it would cause people to use their senses to explain the world around them; summarized that a poem must have an understandable theme, should appeal to the senses, and must bring about a reaction from the reader

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)
an American poet who also addressed the connection between poetry and history; believed that people knew about the horrors of the past from historical accounts while poetry presented people with a hope for the future; also saw a practical application of poetry in the creation of just laws for the people living in a society, although he did not believe it would happen

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822)
a leading lyric English poet of his time; proposed that poetry had been an important part of man’s existence and development since the beginning of time; also saw a connection between history and poetry; believed history distorts the past by concentrating only on facts, while poetry brings out the beauty of past events; believed that poetry could be used to explain and clarify the world around us

rhythm
the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables in a pattern

refrain
the repetition of a line or phrase of a poem at regular intervals, especially at the end of each stanza and serves to emphasize a particular idea

chorus
the refrain in a song

stanza
used in poetry much like a paragraph is used in prose; a grouping of lines that can signify a change of thought or idea in a poem

couplet
2 line stanza

tercet
3 line stanza

quatrain
4 line stanza

cinquain
5 line stanza

sestet
6 line stanza

heptastich
7 line stanza

octave
8 line stanza

prosody
the examination and classification of the elements of poetry, including rhyme types, scansion, meter, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, and stanzas; also referred to as versification

versification
refers to the structure of a verse as identified by the process of scansion; process includes naming the meter being used in the poem

scansion
refers to the identification of the meter by scanning the feet and the stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry

foot
the basic part of a meter and consists of two or three syllables in a verse of poetry

verse
a line of poetry

meter
the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables of a line or verse of poetry

monometer
1 foot

dimeter
2 feet

trimeter
3 feet

tetrameter
4 feet

pentameter
5 feet

hexameter
6 feet

heptameter
7 feet

iamb
a metrical foot with an unstressed and stressed syllable

trochee
a metrical foot that features one stressed syllable and one unstressed syllable

anapest
a metrical foot that features two unstressed syllables and one stressed syllable

dactyl
a metrical foot pattern in poetry that features one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables

spondee
a metrical foot that features two stressed syllables

pyrrhic
a metrical foot that features two unstressed syllables

blank verse
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter lines of ten syllables

terza rima
poetry that features three-line stanzas called tercets; These stanzas have a rhyme scheme of ABA, BDB, CDC, and so forth; created by Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri (1265–1321)
famous Italian poet

rhyme
the repetition of identical or similar sounds at the end of words or lines

rhyme scheme
the rhyming pattern of lines, usually represented by letters

masculine rhyme
used when the rhyme is located in the final stressed syllable

feminine rhyme
used when the rhyme is located in the final unstressed syllable

end rhyme
the most familiar type of rhyme; used when the final words at the end of two or more lines rhyme

eye rhyme
used when the words are very similar in appearance but don’t have the same sound

true rhyme
used when the words are similar in appearance and have the same final vowel and consonant sound

slant rhyme
also called weak rhyme or half rhyme; used when the words have the same ending consonant sound but the vowel sounds are different

internal rhyme
present when the rhyme is located in the middle of a line

end-stopped line
ends with a full pause or break in the meter, often followed by punctuation such as a period, semicolon, colon, exclamation point, comma, or dash

enjambment
features a line of poetry that has no end punctuation or pause with the meaning continuing to the next line; also referred to as run-on line

ballad
a poem that tell a story and usually rhymes every other line

limerick
a humorous verse with a rhyme scheme of AABBA

haiku
a three-line Japanese verse form; the first and the third lines of a haiku have five syllables and the second line contains seven syllables; intended to evoke an emotional response from the reader and to describe something in nature

elegy
a sorrowful and formal lyric poem about death

sonnet
a poem that consists of fourteen lines of iambic pentameter

ode
a lyric poem that praises a person or thing.

epinikions
lyric poems that glorified the great victories of athletes of the great games at Delphe, Nemea, and Olympia

saga
a story that describes heroic deeds; also refer to literature that was written in the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries in Iceland and Scandinavia

Which of these is an example of slant rhyme?
All the answers are correct.

The three four line units of “Sonnet 28” follow which rhyming pattern?
ABAB, CDCD, and EFEF

How many lines does a sonnet have?
fourteen

What is a stanza?
a division of a poem

How many feet does a tetrameter have?
four

Versification is associated with which of these?
prosody

Which of these terms is a type of poetry that features three-lined stanzas with the rhyme scheme ABA BCB CDC, etc.?
terza rima

What determines the name of a line?
the number of feet it contains

Which two metrical lines in English poetry are the most common?
tetrameter and pentameter

What is the most common type of rhyme?
end rhyme

Which of these is an example of eye rhyme?
laughter/slaughter

Which of these terms is defined as the examination and classification of the elements of poetry?
prosody

What type of poetry is shown here?
limerick

Which of these statements is a fact?
The stanzas of a poem are mostly the same length and have the same pattern of rhyme and meter.

Which of these terms describes the occurrence of the same or similar sounds at the end of two or more words?
rhyme

Which from of poetry gives a brief description of nature?
haiku

Which of these types of poetry did Shakespeare often use in his plays?
blank verse

What is a refrain?
a poetic line placed at regular intervals, often at the end of each stanza

Which of these is poem that is meant to be sung?
ballad

What is usually the subject of an elegy?
death

What is determined from scansion?
meter

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Critique of the Harry Stone perspective

Harry Stone offers a critique on the story “Araby’. “ Araby” is filled with simple and complex works of literature that provides a resource for literary critique. Harry Stone explores the literature in the story mainly focusing on the figurative language used. His primary focus is on symbolism and literary allusions. He contends that Joyce had the tendency to be careful enough in order to offer a poor representation of his actions and images. Therefore, they were marked with layers of translucent and incremental meaning. He therefore set the precedence to the critique perspective of the “Symbolism thread.” However, if the symbolic making power of the mind is primarily considered, anything can become symbolism in the tale.

The story of “Araby” is written by James Joyce who is often considered among the greatest English novelist during the 20th century. The story is narrated and shown through the eyes of a young boy and his consciousness. The story employs the extensive use of numerous literary devices. These devices are clear from the onset of the story to its completion. These elements of the story form the fundamental concept for Harry Stone’s critique. The symbolism used by Joyce is important in understanding the thoughts and feelings of the boy. Therefore, the literary devices highlight the major themes in the story and provide the reader the opportunity to relate with the characters.

Stone offers his critique on the basis of uncovering the allusions to other authors. This is in relation to the meaning that is hidden behind various objects in the text. In addition, he views the plot as some sort of archetype. However, his approach does not look in to other aspects of theme that also plays out throughout the story. Stone cites basic allusions to DeQuincy, Yeats and the use of mangan. Stone is quick to note that the poet James Mangan was an influential figure to the writer of the story “Araby”. Accordingly, the protagonist’s friend in the story is also called Mangan. His idealized sister also has a similar name. Therefore, there is a significant and creative correlation of these characters and the poet Mangan.

According to Stone, the popular poem “Dark Rosaleen” is of primary importance to Joyce. Therefore, it relates to the story. This is because Mangan uses a poem that has a similar blend of religious adoration and physical love that the writer makes the young boy show towards Mangan’s sister. Mangan also offers a host of important allusions in relation to Ireland, poetry and “Dark Rosaleen.” This symbolism and allusion is therefore clear contrary to Stone’s perspective. In addition, it is through this correlation that the reader is able to discern the meaning of “Araby.” The significant aspect in the story for Stone therefore lies in the symbolic details.

Stone also touches on the symbolism of words such as blind, the florins, “Araby,” vigils in the tail and other words. However, his article deviates to some extent from the primary role of critiquing the story of “Araby” and relating it to Joyce’s work. The symbolism in the story is suitable incorporated to suit various events that are marked by the protagonist. Themes such as religion need for emotional connection, religious decadence and the distinction between personal and religious beliefs are portrayed through symbolism. His worldly concerns and needs are accentuated by the images of Araby. The element of symbolism interprets towards his religious inclinations that are overthrown by the lure of possibility of sensual and mysterious bazaar.

Stone also highlights the theme of religious decadence through the symbolism used to relate to the priest. Priests generally represent the Christian religion and the church. The dead priest in “Araby” is portrayed as immoral and greedy. Stone highlights this to indicate the increased level of moral decadence in the church. Stone bases his evidence in the request of the priest to donate all his money to charity after his death. According to Stone, a priest should not be rich or have that much money. In addition, the priest had books such as “An anti-catholic work” written by Abednego Seller and The Devout Communist. These readings contradict the moral principles of the church because of the principles that govern the approach. However, Stone does not offer the perspective that the priest might be driven by curiosity to read the books as a trivial motivation.

Stone also criticizes the structure of the story in that it is associated with the Dublin society. He reiterates that the book indicates that citizens gradually become trapped within the Dublin society. He highlights Joyce’s revelation that Dublin has become the epitome of paralysis in life’s achievements. In addition, the citizens have become victims of the paralyzing effect of the Dublin society. Symbolism in the story shows how some members of the society have been held captive by religion and others like the protagonist’s attempt to escape it with his individual beliefs. Stone shows the symbolism in the boy’s efforts to escape religion. Stone is therefore correct in his definition of the social structure within the story.

Stone also touches on the viewpoint that Joyce has used the story of the life of the young boy in order to relay his message and approach to life’s issues. The result is a deep and enlarged view of the writer’s universal ideology. It is therefore necessary to look into the surface and deeper meaning that is contained in the story. However, Stone should also link the different approaches taken by Joyce. Some of the approaches taken by Joyce are to be assessed in their simplistic form. However, the simplistic and complex literature methods exist simultaneously in the story. Therefore, both approaches should be used extensively. Joyce’s work contains a wide array of historical references, allusions and multiple meanings. Stone should have used symbolism to incorporate these aspects.

Stone’s critique also offers the distinct perspective in to the thoughts of the boy. According to Stone, the boy is seeking his freedom. His freedom is against the religion. The critique shows that the catholic religion has been influenced and changed by the changing social and political circumstances. Mangan’s sister is a symbol of the Virgin Mary. The narrator therefore worships her like the Virgin Mary. Stone also reveals uses the narrators thoughts on how he felt that she followed him everywhere. In addition, the boy is disgusted by the impact and hold the church has on him. Therefore, he realizes that he needs freedom after the realization and understanding the church has had a strong hold over his life. Joyce allows the symbolism to show the mythical vision of Ireland that was a victim of enemies that was stripped of its nationality and sacrificed to exploitation by foreign powers. However, Stone does not give the different view that the narrator has benefited to some extent from religion. In addition Mangan’s sister can also be used to represent western influence and dominance.

Other elements of figurative language are used by Joyce. These include irony, personification, metaphor and Irish mythology. However, Stone does not adequately show their prominence in his critique. The narrator has a symbolic dream of a romantic enchantment (Stone, 89). Stone focuses on the symbolic aspect on how the dream represents the religious bondage which limits the boy’s life. However, there is also an ironic indirection in the dream. Eastern influence is also incorporated in Irish affairs. The setting of any story is also instrumental in the integration of various concepts of the story. The story is established in an Irish setting in the City of Dublin (Joyce, et. al, 122). Therefore, some of the major characters and features in the tale relate to an Irish background and setting. Though Stone associates his critique to the setting, he should have undertaken a further analytical association to the setting.

Harry Stone views the story by Joyce is a portrayal of him as a young boy. His argument is set on the autobiographical approach towards the story. However, he does not offer give much explanation towards his argument. In addition, he does not provide substantial evidence to support his claims. However, the story of “Araby” does resemble the life and childhood of James Joyce. He lived in the city of Dublin on North Richmond Street throughout his childhood. Similarly, the narrator in “Araby” lives in the area. He also attended the Christian Brother’s school. In addition, the uncle and aunt to “Araby” bear a similar resemblance to the writer’s parents.

In conclusion Harry Stone expresses his critique of the story as one which offers a diverse reflection of society. He explains the reading experience as a criticism of civilization, religion, a nation and human existence in general. The story of “Araby” therefore the scale that is an indicator of the well guarded citadels of individuals and their level of self delusion. The writer is successful by using simple actions and phrases that have a deep meaning of his message. Therefore, Stone’s critique offers a broader perspective of the story “Araby” and its pros and cons. However, setting his basis on figurative language and symbolism might be an over analysis of the simplistic aspect of the story.

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