Type: Definition Essays
Sample donated: Ed Waters
Last updated: June 24, 2019
Policy paper Terrorist Use of the Internet By Hannah Schwarcz 332517291 Executive summary : This paper is intended to the Secretary and the decision makers of the Congress .As a member of the committee , We have observed that Security agency focus on exaggeratedthreat of cyberterrorism and paid insufficient attention to more routine uses made of theinternet .We have started by explaining the different ways in which terrorists uses the internet . Thenwe have identified what is exactly cyberterrorism, how and why it is dangerous .To finish afterchecking the past policies about this issue we propose new policy that would change andimprove the current situation .We have proposed to be radical as terrorism is radical , If someone want to fight somethingit has to invest the same strength .
If terrorism is still living and killing today it means that wefailed and that we haven’t been enough strong against it . We have tried few ways that wereapproved by the majority , respecting the laws of freedom of expression but terrorists tookadvantage of it and used it to strengthen their organizations .The public won’t let it happen and we be against such measures but the real question is whatis more important for them ? The restriction of free speech , freedom of expression or moreradical censorship laws and more security that won’t be circumvented and that will give a realsecurity and less terrorism around the world .This paper will detail all the present internet treats and how we recommend to fight it . How does The committee and the government should respond to the terrorist use of theinternet threat?Nowadays, terror appears to be much more dangerous than it was several years ago,especially since the development and constant growth of technology and mostly, the Internet.This is mainly indicated by the growing number of terrorist attacks, which rose from 1500 in2000 to nearly 15000 in 2017. In addition, the number of individuals that have been recruitedonline in the past 15 years, is an additional indicator of this continual expansion.
The use of internet by terrorists There are 8 different ways in which terrorists use the internet: Conducting psychological warfare on the internet The first way terrorists use the internet is through the spread of disinformation.They deliver threats intended to distill fear and helplessness .They also disseminate horrificimages of recent actions, for instance, the brutal murder of the journalist Daniel Pearl.They created the fear of cyberterrorism , “cyberfear” which shows that a computer attackcould do for example, disabling air traffic control system.
Al Qaeda combines multimedia propaganda and advanced communication technology tocreate very sophisticated form of psychological warfare . Gathering information Internet is a digital library that offers free information. Terrorists can learn a lot about theirspecific targets, all through transportation facilities, nuclear power plants, public building,airports, ports, and even counter terror measures .According to Donald Rumsfelsd, Secretary of Defense “it is possible to gather 80% of allinformation required about the enemy”. The Muslim Hacker Club has featured links to US sites that purport to disclose sensitiveinformation, such as code names and radio frequencies used by the U.S. Secret Services,tutorials creating viruses, hacking stratagems, sabotaging networks . Fundraising through the Internet There are many websites created for funds and donations.
Al Qaeda for instance, uses theInternet for donations. Terrorists can identify users with sympathy for a cause, using theInternet use demographic, which is an online forms with questions. These individuals areasked to make donations , through email sent by a front group, for example an organizationbroadly supportive of the terrorists’ aims but operating publicly and legally and usually havingno direct ties to the terrorist organization. Terrorist’s ways of propaganda 1.
2. Internet has significantly expanded the opportunities for terrorists to secure publicity, beforethat, marketing was portrayed through television, radio, and print media.It is important to notice that most terrorist sites do not celebrate their violent activities butemphasize 2 specific issues : Restrictions placed on freedom of expression Plight of comrades who are political prisonersTerrorist Websites try to elicit sympathy from western audiences by creating feelings ofunease and shame amongst their foes. — These websites employ 3 rhetorical structures to justify their reliance on violence:Terrorists have no choice other than to turn to violence: Violence is presented as a necessityfoisted upon the weak, to respond to an oppressive enemy. They claim: “Government is murderer, slaughterer doing genocide”.
Legitimacy of the use of violence is the demonizing and de-legitimization of the enemy. The members of the organization are freedom fighters forced to use violence because theirenemy is crushing the rights and dignity of their member.They convince themselves and insist on the fact that the enemies of the organization are thereal terrorists and on their websites they shout out, : “our violence is tiny in comparison tohis aggression”. They make extensive use of the language of non violence in an attempt tocounter terrorists’ violent image. Recruiting and mobilizing One of the crucial ways for terrorists to promote terrorism through the Internet is recruitingand mobilizing an individual.Terrorist organizations capture information about the users who browse their websites.Recruiters uses more interactive Internet Technology looking for receptive membersparticularly young vulnerable people.
More typically they go looking for recruits rather thanwaiting for them to present themselves. Networking Modern communication technologies and computer-mediated communication are useful forterrorists in establishing and maintaining networks for several reasons.First, new technologies have greatly reduced transmission time / dispersed actors cancommunicate swiftly and coordinate effectively.
Also, the cost of communication is reduced .Moreover, by integrating computing withcommunication , they increased variety and complexity of the information that can be shared.Internet can also connect members of different terrorist organizations. Finally, dozens of sitesand related forums allow terrorists from many countries to exchange ideas and practicalinformation about how to build bombs , establish terror cells and carry out attacks.
Cyberterrorism The term “cyberterrorism” was coined in the 1980s by Barry Collin, a senior research fellowat the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California.The concept is composed of two elements : cyberspace and terrorism .According to Collin, Cyberspace is “that place in which computer programs function and datamoves”.
The term “terrorism” signifies premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetratedagainst non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usuallyintended to influence an audience. Combining the two past terms, the adjusted definition of cyberterrorism resumes topremeditated, politically motivated attacks, by sub-national groups or clandestine agentsagainst information, computer systems and programs, and data that result in violence againstnoncombatant targets (Denning 1999). Kent Anderson, Senior vice-president of IT security and Investigations for information securityfirm Control risks Group, has devised a three-tiered schema for categorizing fringe activity onthe Internet, using the three terms “use”, “misuse” and “offensive use”. Use is simply using the Internet/WWW to facilitate communications via e- mails and mailinglists, newsgroups and websites. In almost every case, this activity is simply free speech Misuse is when the line is crossed from expression of ideas to acts that disrupt or otherwisecompromise other sites. An example of misuse is Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks againstwebsites . Offensive use is the next level of activity where actual damage or theft occurs. The physicalworld analogy would be a riot where property is damaged or people are injured .
The danger of Internet and cyberterrorism Cyberterrorism presents big dangers mainly because of the virtues of internet; the ease ofaccess, the lack of regulation, a vast potential audience and the fast flow of information. It isthus, easier for terrorist organizations to undertake their actions with no outside knowledge.Thus, it is easy for a single naive person, teenager or a slightly disturbed person to beinfluenced and consequently more engaged in support of terror and finally become a lonewolf.
The World Wide Web is home to dozens of sites that provide information on how to buildchemical and explosive weapons. It is not the dark net, it is the Internet, a no cost digitallibrary where any individual is free to access all information given. Therefore, terrorists haveall the means to learn about their targets intimate and unique profiles. Due to the lack ofregulations, terrorist groups are liberate to act as they prefer online, under the freedom ofthought and expression. Their strategy to be more durable is changing their online address orsimple erase the websites and create new ones. Terrorist websites tend to target three different audiences: current and potential supporters,international public opinion and enemy public.
As a member of the committee , and after studying the situation with the committee , weunanimously decided that some measures had to be taken to respond to the threat ofcyberterrorism and all the threats we will meet on the same field .The different laws that were decided in the past are today insufficient and limited to preventthe terrorist groups and activist to use internet as they wish . And even if some people won’tagree with the policies we will recommend , because it will restrict the freedom of expressionand human rights , it is important to understand that this is the only way we can try tominimize and control more the situation . Pre existing policies :Policy on terrorism and the internet prior to the Islamic State’s emergence focusedpredominantly on counter-intelligence, which included expanding electronic surveillanceafter the 9/11 attacks. In USA For starters, the First Amendment only protects people from the government restricting theirspeech unreasonably.
For instance, it does not protect people in real life, or on the internet, who incite violence; nor does it protect people making credible threats of violence. Then they have tried to prosecute webmasters who run terrorist websites in the West, buthas run into opposition from advocates of free speech. First Amendment : Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, orprohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; orthe right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Since websites are privately owned, websites are free to develop their own policies regardingwhat is or isn’t allowed. You will generally have no legal recourse if a website chooses to censor you (although if it is done discriminatorily or in violation of a contract, you may) The courts and congress have carved out specific types of speech that are excluded from protection. The Constitution protects your right to engage in actual speech or symbolic speech, whetherit be expressive, commercial or political, with the following exceptions:Defamation/Invasionof Privacy , Obscenity , Intellectual Property Infringement , Speech that incites others to breakthe law , “Fighting Words” , Speech that creates a “clear and present danger” to nationalsecurity , False advertising , Speech that is disruptive to school activities . If you post something online that is not true, is deceptive or fraudulent, or is viewed as acredible threat of violence or a criminal act, not only is the First Amendment not going toapply as nearly all websites/webhosts/servers/etc that allow the public to post anything areprivately owned, you can be censored, and you could also face civil liability.
Defamation law : The issue with those policies is that still terrorist continue to do their activities online underthe Internet “freedom of expression”.The committee and me have discuss one this point and we arrived to few new policies thatcould be adopted to enhance the situation : First , Using a software with an algorithm that analyzes and detect every time someone istyping a word on a computer online (like in China ) : It can be just on Google , Facebook ..
oreven a word that appears on a website . Then Doing a list of terms that are directly related ornot directly related to terrorism ( Hamas is directly , Gaza not ) . Well after launching theperson who did that , just checking the daily use of internet of this person , and also thewebsite he was looking for , and if there are some terrorist causes that are defended , justerasing the website and put the person on a red list . If he continues to write or looking forthis kind of website , Blacklist : that means that Security agencies will have a total control onhis computer .
Worse than censorship is the legal liability a person can face for posting untrue speech.Defamation can occur via an internet post, which could expose a person to monetarydamages. Also, credible criminal threats, even those made anonymously online, can land you in jail. The government can’t imprison someone for making a defamatory statement since it is not a crime. Instead, defamation is considered to be a civil wrong, or atort. A person that has suffered a defamatory statement may sue the person that made the statement under defamation law. Second , Control each fundraise that has a high value online ( over .
..Millions $ ) , every waywe can fundraise : PayPal , bank transfer ,common pot .. and also through bitcoins ,and cryptomoney as much as possible . Third , Forbid every video , website , tutorial , chemistry websites that could be interpretedas providing “bomb-making instructions.” Forbidding also every kind of instruction that ismore complicated than a high school level about chemistry .
(Learning programs would be onuniversity websites and doesn’t need to be on YouTube or everywhere else ) Pros and cons : 1- 2 – 3 – Cons:• It is a very hard work for cyber teams and it could take time , even to decide which words to put on the ” forbidden list ” .• Itwillcostalotofmoney. • Pros: • Cons: • • Pros: • It will be reject by the public , with the ” freedom of expression ” argument . It would definitely reduce all the terrorist activities online , even if they havesome software to circumvent the Government software , it will take time forthem , and we will strengthen it every time. Some online transaction are impossible to track , and it could be the moreimportant ones .
It will also take time because there are so many . Terror can’t belong without money , money is the basis of every terror organization…
Cutting the money will bring to failure of those organizations .Cons: It will be reject by the public because some people are using these tutorials to work ,not only for bad reasons . A lot of learning websites for students will have to be deleted , and some are doingmoney only with this activity.
Pros: • It will considerably reduce the activity of activists that want to create bombs , they will have much more difficulty to get the information to do it . Our recommendation with the committee is to choose the First Option that kind of coverthe 3 Options and also the most radical one . It will cost a lot of money but also todayauthorities are spending money on some counter measures that are insufficient .Well here it is important to understand that the freedom of expression or speech is a verygood law , but that has been done few years ago , much more before internet came out .Today we are facing a world that is working a lot online ,We must better defend oursocieties against cyberterrorism and internet-savvy terrorists and the only way we can stopthis kind of menace is to be radical .
If we stop it today , and put clear strict regulations ,tomorrow we will be able to control more the situation . We just have to act with a strength that is stronger than the terrorist one . Annotated bibliography Bruce Hoffman, “The Use of the Internet By Islamic Extremists,” Testimony presented to theHouse Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (May 4, 2006).
Santa Monica, CA: RandCorporation Testimony Series. Maura Conway, “Reality Bytes: Cyberterrorism and Terrorist ‘Use’ of the Internet,” Dept. ofPolitical Science, Trinity College, Dublin Ireland.
First Monday. 7/11/2002. Gabriel Weimann, “How Modern Terrorism Uses the Internet,” United States Institute ofPeace, Special Report.
No. 116 (March 2004). Tsfati, Yariv & Weimann, Gabriel. “www.terrorism.com: Terror on the Internet.
” Studies inConflict & Terrorism, 25, Taylor & Francis, pp. 317-332, 2002 http://blogs.findlaw.com/law_and_life/2011/05/legalese-101-freedom-of-speech.html : Provide https://www.
cfr.org/backgrounder/terrorists-and-internet by the Council of foreignrelation , describes how terrorists have cultivated the web to suit their needs. http://constitution.findlaw.com/amendment1/annotation06.html#1 ProvidesConstitution laws Information About the Law features informational articles about a wide variety of legal topics